‘Long before Cassius Clay said it about himself they were saying it on Merseyside. About themselves. “WE ARE THE GREATEST IN THE WORLD.” Liverpool and Everton fans said it about their teams. The players about their supporters. With equal conviction’
[Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly, 1966] 
This dissertation examines whether the period from 1959 to 1974 can be considered a ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool? This will be done by analysing the events within Liverpool FC and Everton FC, in this period. Specifically, it investigates the managerial careers of Bill Shankly at Liverpool FC and Harry Catterick at Everton FC, respectively. This comparative analysis will establish the roles of the two managers in the successes of their clubs during this ‘golden age’.
This dissertation seeks to examine five key research questions in relation to Shankly, at Liverpool FC, and his contemporary, Harry Catterick, at Everton FC. Firstly, was the period from 1959 to 1974 a ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool? Secondly, what role did Bill Shankly and Harry Catterick play in making this a ‘golden age’? Thirdly, how much did the clubs achieve in this period? Fourthly, what praises and criticisms can be attributed to Shankly and Catterick in this period? And lastly, are there facts about Shankly and Catterick that can weaken or strengthen their image, that are unbeknown to many supporters of both Liverpool FC and Everton FC?
These five research questions will remain a constant focus for the content of this dissertation. The research questions will be evaluated later, this will assess how the dissertation has answered these questions. Reviewing these five points will illustrate that the dissertation has remained focussed throughout.
Secondary Sources and Historiography: Gaps in the Knowledge
Of all the available readings on the subject, relating to Shankly and Catterick, there were several key works related to both managers and Merseyside football, which were particularly useful. This includes three crucial general texts on Liverpool FC, Kelly’s The Official Illustrated History 1892-1995: Liverpool, Matthews’ Who’s Who of Liverpool and Williams’ Red Men: Liverpool Football Club – The Biography. These works provide a general overview of Liverpool FC throughout their history. They highlight key events and information from the period of Shankly being manager and the successes of Liverpool FC. As Shankly is a famous manager in Liverpool’s history, there were many works to choose from and these three were the most insightful.
Some of the best general histories of Everton FC that were used, they included; two books by Hodgson written shortly after this period, The Everton Football Book: League Champions 1969/70 and The Everton Story. Kelly also contributed to Everton FC’s historiography with his book Forever Everton: The Official Illustrated History of Everton FC, again Matthews also produced a book related to Everton FC with Who’s Who of Everton. Rogers’ produced two significant books that were used, Born Not Manufactured: Five Decades of Inside Stories from the Heart of Everton Football Club and Goodison Glory: The Official History. These provided a similar insight to the general books used with Liverpool FC, they deliver an overview of this era, highlighting key events and people from the period who were then researched further. Perhaps Hodgson’s works were most significant, they were both written in the 1970s and had more of a focus on Catterick and this period.
There was an abundance of works specifically focusing on the career of Bill Shankly. Some of the most significant were, Gill (Shankly’s granddaughter) and her book, The Real Bill Shankly, Glyn’s A Legend in His Own Time: Bill Shankly, Manager, Liverpool Football Club, 12th December, 1959 – 12th July, 1974. A Tribute, Keith’s The Essential Shankly, Kelly again with Bill Shankly: It's Much More Important Than That: The Biography and Thompson with Shankly. As well as this, amongst several academic journals that were used, Davie’s work ‘Believing without Belonging: A Liverpool Case Study’, provided an interesting insight on fan relations with Shankly. These works were much more focussed on the period under discussion and were very helpful with the dissertation. Of these six selected texts, they were written across four different decades over a span of thirty-six years. This helped to provide differing opinions from different historians and time periods. This also exemplifies the broad amount of work available for Shankly.
In contrast to the abundance of Shankly specific work, is the texts focussed on Catterick. The only book that provides a focussed insight into Catterick’s career specifically was Sawyer’s Harry Catterick: The Untold Story of a Football Great. This could be problematic, there is little to judge Sawyer’s work against to establish whether it provides a fair assessment of Catterick’s career. Nevertheless, this book partnered with general histories of Everton FC, did enable me to analyse the role of Catterick during this period.
Having read these texts there has been some failures to examine the research questions that have been addressed. There have been two crucial gaps in the knowledge that have reoccurred. One crucial gap is centred around Catterick, during this research no audio or visual clips have been found in any form. Whenever searching for Catterick the only sources that have been useful are mainly centred around his flaws. Authors seem keen to note he was an influential manager and then immediately counter this with stories that undermine his work. There is a distinct lack of pro-Catterick literature and primary evidence of him talking.
Another crucial gap in the knowledge centres around criticism of Shankly, this is the opposite of Catterick. Shankly literature is far too hagiographical, there is a consensus in the literature that Shankly was a brilliant manager, it is hard to pick out faults. Nevertheless, certain facts and events that undermine his infallible image have been uncovered. Any facts or figures that illustrated a weakness in Shankly’s abilities were often little known by supporters of Liverpool FC, they were also not spoken about in many of the books that were used. These were the two most crucial gaps in the knowledge that occurred during this research.
The use of the National Football Museum Archives in the Collections & Research Centre, at Deepdale, Preston, was crucial for this dissertation. This archive is open to academic and non-academic research visitors and houses thousands of primary and secondary sources related to football throughout history. The extensive collection of autobiographies and biographies, partnered with primary magazines, such as Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly and Shoot Magazine, were of significant help to this study.
This thesis has accessed numerous autobiographies from significant individuals of this era. Three texts by Alan Ball were used, however his final book, Alan Ball: Playing Extra Time, was the most significant as this was a more in-depth analysis of his career at Everton FC. Whereas, the other two works were written whilst he was playing and were very general overviews of his career to that date. Similar to this was the work by Ian St John, Phil Thompson, John Toshack and Ron Yeats. These four men helped to provide specific information from key events at Anfield under Shankly. They provided a different approach on events that Shankly discusses, this helped to present a more rounded argument. Ian Callaghan’s autobiography should have been one of the most crucial texts as he played throughout the Shankly period. However, this work was very general and not too helpful, the book does not flow chronologically and is far too brief. This is similar to the autobiography of Bob Paisley, he only provides one chapter on his career with Shankly. Having spent fifteen years working together one would expect a lot more from this book, instead Paisley lightly brushes the surface of Shankly’s career and does not reveal or assess much from Shankly’s tenure. This is in stark contrast to Colin Harvey, he worked under Catterick and provided a lot of in-depth information about Catterick during his time at Everton FC. Unfortunately, Catterick did not write an autobiography so it was hard to find his opinion on specific moments at Goodison Park. Shankly’s autobiography provided this insight that Catterick was lacking, Shankly is very in-depth with his book and this was invaluable during this research.
Utilising the fact that many fans from this period are still alive was crucial. Through interviewing seven Liverpool FC and Everton FC fans, an insight into contemporary opinion was possible. Combining questions from the past with interesting facts and statistics, knowledge on what fan opinions were of these two men at the time was established. It was very interesting finding out more from this era from supporters who were going to watch Liverpool FC and Everton FC in this period.
Magazines report major events from a particular month or week, this highlighted the significance of certain events that were analysed and was invaluable for the dissertation. Of the five magazines that were used, four were produced outside of Liverpool. This provided a less biased review of events of the time. As well as this, for a national magazine to be writing about Liverpool FC or Everton FC added weight to an argument that this was a ‘golden age’ for football on Merseyside. These magazines were in-depth and consistently provided contemporary opinions of key games and events. Of all the magazines used, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly was invaluable for this period.
The magazines were similar to the use of newspapers. Despite this, they were less useful than the magazines. Most of the newspapers that were examined were regarding key games, in this era newspapers would be handed out after football matches. This meant that first-half analysis of a game was in-depth, yet the second-half was overlooked. This was frustrating and often undermined the source. As well as this, most of the publications analysed were produced in Liverpool, this made many sources biased and unreliable. Newspapers were a key part of this research but magazines were of more help.
The use of official matchday programmes from both Liverpool FC and Everton FC was very useful. These provided a good insight to the opinions of those at board level within both clubs. Programmes of that time always included a message from the chairman who would assess how the season was going and share any notable information for the fans. One issue that was apparent came from programmes toward the end of the season. Many times, the last few games of a season are vital, the issue that arose centred around printing time. Many of the pre-match messages would have to pre-empt events that may or may not have happened. This took away from the ability to celebrate or criticise events within the club, thus diminishing the value of the source.
Radio was an avenue that could have been further explored. When researching, it became apparent that Shankly and Catterick had appeared on local radio numerous times. Despite attempts to contact the radio stations, these radio appearances could not be accessed. The only radio piece that was accessed was the Bill Shankly Show. This radio interview between Shankly and, former Prime minister, Harold Wilson, provided a great insight to the political opinions of Shankly.
Finally, the use of British MovieTone and British Pathé provided primary video evidence from the time. These video reports were again a display of the role of the two clubs, nationwide. These videos added an extra layer to the research and bolstered the written evidence that had been compiled. Reports of the time were very different to the way sport is broadcasted today, this meant that the research was more interesting. Despite this, the difference in reporting did lack some detail and made referencing and quoting from the videos more difficult.
Archival sources were crucial for this dissertation. Through independent research and sourcing of evidence, partnered with the information supplied at the National Football Museum’s archive, this study was provided with crucial primary evidence. For further details on these sources, see the bibliography.
This thesis is comprised of two chapters. Chapter One – ‘Boss Man’ or ‘People’s Man’, seeks to examine the role of Bill Shankly at Liverpool FC from 1959 to 1974. The two quotes in the name of the chapter illustrate two contrasting characteristics of Shankly, this chapter will further explore these themes. To do this some of the most significant trophies that were won in this period will be examined. Not only will they be analysed, but this will be in the context of Shankly and his role in these successes. As well as success, the failures of this time must be assessed and again this will be viewed in the context of Shankly. The chapter seeks to examine whether this period was a ‘golden age’ for Liverpool FC and what role Shankly played in this.
Chapter Two – ‘Mr. Success’ and his ‘Cheque-book Champions’, seeks to examine the role of Harry Catterick at Everton FC from 1961-1973. This is much like the first chapter and will be viewing the achievements and disappointments of Everton FC in this period. The two quotes in the name of the chapter highlight how Catterick is rewarded with praise for this era, yet his role is undermined by the money that he had at his disposal. The ups and downs of Everton FC at this time will be viewed under the context of Catterick. By analysing these events, a clear picture of the role of Catterick at this period will be created.
Liverpool FC and Everton FC were at different swings of a pendulum when the period started. Liverpool FC languishing in Division 2 began the period in depression, Everton FC ended the period in a slump following Catterick’s ill health. The two met in the middle of their respective swings of the pendulum in the period 1962-1966. Collectively the teams won nine trophies in these four years and the build-up and aftermath to these events are of foremost importance and interest. Fifteen trophies in fifteen years, throughout the whole period from 1959 to 1974, is enough to surmise this as a ‘golden age’. This long decade under examination, covers such a vast change in fortunes for both clubs that this must be considered a ‘golden age’. The period involved rivalry and friendship, success and failure in equal measure across Merseyside. The years from 1959 to 1974 will be fully examined through analysing the role of Shankly at Liverpool FC and Catterick at Everton FC.
‘Boss Man’ or ‘People’s Man’?
Bill Shankly’s tenure at Liverpool FC from 1959 to 1974
My idea was to build Liverpool into a bastion of invincibility. Had Napoleon had that idea he would have conquered the bloody world. I wanted Liverpool to be untouchable. My idea was to build Liverpool up and up until eventually everyone would have to submit and give in
[Bill Shankly, 1974] 
Bill Shankly: background and philosophy
Shankly was an integral part of this ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool. He was involved with Liverpool FC for the entirety of the period under examination, from becoming manager in 1959, until his retirement in 1974. Shankly was an inspirational leader, who is known as the man who laid the building blocks of Liverpool FC’s domestic and European successes of the 1970s and 1980s. He is also the only person who has a statue outside of Anfield which further illustrates his importance to Liverpool FC. ‘Bill Shankly, the Ayrshire born footballer turned manager who transformed the fortunes of a mediocre Second Division side and lay the foundations for years of European dominance’. An orator, leader and likeable man, this chapter examines the role of Shankly during this ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool, and the role he played in the successes and failures of Liverpool FC at this time.
When Shankly arrived on Merseyside from Huddersfield Town FC in 1959, Liverpool FC were a solid Division 2 side but far behind their neighbours Everton FC, who were a comfortable Division 1 side. Shankly said that when he first visited Anfield, Liverpool FC’s home ground, it was ‘the biggest toilet in Liverpool’.
 This exemplifies the position that Liverpool FC found itself and makes the forthcoming success even more impressive. When Liverpool FC won the Division 1 League Title in the 1965-66 season Sidney Reakes, Liverpool FC Chairman, stated that the ‘club can look back with pride on the achievements of the past five years, which rank as the most successful period in our history’. From Division 2 regulars to three-time Division 1 League Title champions (1963-64, 1965-66, 1972-73), Division 2 League Title winners (1961-62), winners of the FA Cup twice (1965, 1974), winners of the UEFA Cup (1973) and two shared and one won Charity Shield (1964, 1965, 1966). All ten trophies won within thirteen years of Shankly’s tenure. This period can certainly be viewed as a ‘golden age’ for Liverpool FC.
It would be too simplistic and lacking focus to purely run through the Shankly years, listing the successes and trophies won during this time. Instead, there will be a focus on five key factors of Shankly’s career at Anfield. The factors under focus are; (1) promotion from Division 2, (2) the 1965 FA Cup, (3) the 1972-73 season where Liverpool FC won the Division 1 Title and the UEFA Cup, (4) Shankly’s relationship with the fans, partnered with this it is important to analyse (5) Shankly’s baron period 1966-73. His passion, charisma and relationship with the fans carried himself, his team and the city. He is now known as the manager who remodelled and made Liverpool FC a talented team, he inspired the ‘Anfield Boot Room’, and the European and Domestic dominance that came to Liverpool FC in the 1970s and 1980s. The key moments that add to and diminish the assertion that Shankly delivered a ‘golden age’ for Liverpool FC, will be thoroughly examined.
(1) Liverpool FC’s Promotion from Division 2 in the 1961-62 season
Upon his arrival, Shankly needed results to win the supporters’ trust. The 1961-62 season proved to be the campaign when Liverpool FC were promoted from Division 2 into Division 1, as champions. Not only does this add to the evidence that this was a ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool, but this season showcased Shankly’s shrewd transfer market ability and management skills. The 1961-62 season was Shankly’s third at Anfield, twice he had attempted to lift Liverpool FC out of Division 2, twice he had narrowly failed and finished third.
He highlighted a list of ‘twenty-four names’ of players he wanted to leave the club ‘inside a year’, believing Liverpool FC were ‘overburdened’ with too many substandard players. One of the men on this list was club legend Billy Liddell, so good that for a lengthy period Liverpool FC were coined ‘Liddellpool’. When he played ‘his last game for Liverpool in 1960’ it was ‘twenty-two years after he had signed for them’. Liddell remains the oldest goal scorer in Liverpool FC’s history and is the fourth top goal scorer of all time. His final game was marked with a souvenir edition of the Liverpool Echo where he was labelled ‘a player, a gentleman, a sportsman and the finest clubman the game ever knew’. Although the decision may not have seemed too hard to make as Liddell was now an aged player, it was still difficult to replace a man of that stature within the club. Nevertheless, Shankly did so and he was firmly building his own team when he entered the new season.
Shankly had frictions with the Liverpool FC board of directors. He described them as ‘gamblers on a losing streak who were afraid to bet anymore’. This was largely due to the thirteen years it had been without a trophy, and the six years they had spent in Division 2. Despite strong performances in his first two seasons, Liverpool FC were still not promoted and the board were not confident enough to financially support all of Shankly’s plans. This was until the arrival of Eric Sawyer. When Shankly arrived, he said Liverpool FC had ‘no money whatsoever to buy players’, though Sawyer was ‘an ambitious man’ and his arrival gave Shankly the backing he needed at a higher level.
Shankly put two players at the top of his transfer wish list, but the board still met his desires with scepticism, stating that the club could not afford them. However, Sawyer spoke up and said, “We cannot afford not to buy them”. Shankly went on to secure the signature of his two men, Ian St John and Ron Yeats, the two proved to be, according to Thompson, the ‘backbone of Liverpool’s success in the 1960s’. Shankly read in a newspaper that St John was looking for a move away from Motherwell, within twenty-four hours Shankly was in Scotland talking with the striker and within a week he had scored a hat-trick against Everton FC. £37,500 had been invested, a record transfer for Liverpool FC, but still only half of Shankly’s plan. It was questioned whether ‘any player has given greater value than St. John’, during his time at Anfield, this exemplifies his importance. He was described by the Liverpool Echo as ‘ipso facto, a great footballer’, he represented Liverpool FC for ten years.
Next, Shankly set his sights on fellow Scotsman, Ron Yeats. According to Ponting and Hale, Yeats was a ‘veritable man-mountain of a stopper’ and proved to be a great signing for Shankly. Yeats was put on the transfer list at Dundee after asking for a £2 raise in his salary, and much like with St John, Shankly wasted no time in capitalising on one of his transfer targets. Yeats recalled meeting Shankly for the first time in an Edinburgh hotel, Shankly quipped that the six feet two defender was “nearly seven feet tall”, and he told Yeats Liverpool FC were a Division 1 side. When Yeats corrected Shankly that Liverpool FC were only in Division 2, he replied, “We are at the moment … but when we sign you we’ll be in the First Division next year!”. Yeats was swept up in the charisma of ‘Bill Shankly – a great talker’, as Yeats labelled him, £30,000 later, he was a Liverpool FC player. The Liverpool Echo labelled ‘Yeats, a quiet, slow-spoken man off the pitch, is a tiger on it’, he went on to captain Shankly’s side to success and lifted seven trophies during his tenure.
Shankly had culled unwanted players, had backing from the board and secured his two most wanted transfers. These two players were ‘the very beginning of Liverpool’s rise, and they did more for the rise than anyone else. Yeats at the back, St John at the front’. The two men, combined with goalkeeper Tommy Lawrence, were described as the ‘backbone of the team’.
 Shankly had achieved a lot in a short amount of time and was ready to challenge for the Division 2 title. One key reason for the success of that side was Roger Hunt, he scored ‘41 goals in 41 league appearances’, in the 1961-62 season. Shankly had used Hunt extensively in the two previous seasons, nevertheless this proves the strength in his judgement. Shankly had orchestrated many departures from the team, yet the successes of those he retained display his managerial ability. He was not merely selling players to gather funds for a whole new squad, rather remoulding the one he had and making them a Division 1 side.
The 1961-62 season proved to be the campaign where Shankly lifted Liverpool FC out of Division 2, and ultimately never returned. This owed much to the big investment in Yeats and St John, who Shankly labelled ‘the corner-stone’ of his squad. As well as home grown players like Callaghan and Hunt, and another new signing, Gordon Milne, Liverpool FC had a promotion worthy squad. Shankly built a side in which the fans ‘had no fear of them losing’. They won their first six games of the season, when promotion was secured ‘The Reds were back where they belonged’. The league title was won in April with five games to spare, Kelly notes that ‘Shankly had unleashed a new phenomenon of crowd fanaticism and passion which would soon become a legend’. With the fans on side, Shankly carried Liverpool FC into Division 1.
The transition from Division 2 obscurity to this promotion winning side was a hugely significant event for Liverpool FC. Had this promotion not been achieved, and achieved so early in Shankly’s time at Anfield, this could not be viewed as a ‘golden age’ for football on Merseyside. The promotion to Division 1 provided Liverpool FC access to a better standard of football, as well as more prestigious trophies on offer. In their second season in Division 1, Shankly won the Division 1 League Title. The following season, this feat was surpassed as Liverpool FC won the FA Cup for the very first time.
(2) Winning the 1965 FA Cup
One of the most significant moments of the period under examination for Liverpool FC, was the FA Cup win of 1965. Winning the FA Cup was deemed by some fans as having ‘the same parity’ as winning the Division 1 League Title. Others perceived it as ‘the be all and end all’, regardless, it was appreciated a lot more in the 1960s than it is today. Newspaper reports from the time stated, ‘the triumphs of triumphs as so far as a football team are concerned’, was winning the FA Cup. Ian Callaghan, who played for Liverpool FC in the 1965 FA Cup Final, said that playing and winning the 1965 FA Cup ‘was on par with the 1977 European Cup final win’. Roger Hunt, who scored in the final, said that winning the 1965 FA Cup was a feat ‘that I never topped’. Given that Both Callaghan and Hunt were members of England’s 1966 World Cup winning squad, this exemplifies the significance of this event. What made the event more momentous was that in the thirty years that proceeded the 1965 final, eleven of the twenty-two teams in the First Division had won the FA Cup. Not only were Liverpool FC not one of them, they had never won it in their history. Under Shankly, Liverpool FC were beaten in the Semi-Final in 1963 and in their history, had lost two finals in both 1914 and 1950. As the FA Cup had existed since 1872, it was vital that Liverpool FC won the FA cup and when they did it was a momentous occasion.
When Leeds United FC and Liverpool FC walked out at Wembley on that day, both were eager to win ‘the greatest of all English sporting trophies, the FA Cup’. The game itself was not the most thrilling, with no goals scored it went to extra-time. Three goals were scored in extra-time, when Ian St. John scored with three minutes remaining it proved to be the winner and Liverpool FC had won their first FA Cup. Shankly himself stated that ‘Whether we entertained the people or not didn’t make any difference. In the end we had to go into extra-time, but we won the game’.
 During his moments of success Shankly became known for his speeches in the city when his team returned from cup finals. Many times, he stood on the steps of St. George’s Hall in the city centre and would deliver speeches that would rouse and ignite his adoring fans. Nevertheless, 1965 was different in that there was no speech for Shankly on this occasion, yet the reception the players received was special. Shankly said when the players returned to the city all they could see was ‘buildings and faces’, with many fans climbing and hanging from ‘dangerous places’, but they did not mind as ‘their name was on the Cup at last, and that was all that mattered’.
The way in which this cup was celebrated illustrates that the Liverpool FC fans knew this was a huge moment in Liverpool FC’s history. Finally, they had won the FA Cup and they were consistently challenging in the league. Shankly was creating a ‘golden age’ at Anfield and no triumph was celebrated more than the 1965 FA Cup, his ‘greatest day in football’.
The city was buzzing, it was ‘estimated that well over half a million people’ were present to salute their team, it was ‘almost certainly the biggest crowd that had ever gathered in the centre of the city’. This event brought great pride to Bill Shankly who kept a newspaper cutting of the day for the rest of his life and he said, ‘I wouldn’t have been surprised if the lads had lifted the coach off the ground and carried us all to the Town Hall’. This event meant so much to the Liverpool FC fans, the FA Cup was a huge trophy and was celebrated more than when they had won the League two years previous. The Liverpool FC fans were riding the crest of a wave, a wave that was created by Shankly and they adored him and his team.
In the five years preceding and including 1966, Liverpool FC had won seven trophies. Shankly’s Liverpool FC looked untouchable, yet he was about to meet his longest baron period of his Liverpool FC career. After winning the Division 1 League Title in the 1965-66 season, Shankly did not win another trophy (other than the 1966 Charity Shield), until the 1972-73 season. This period included huge transition within the squad. The long wait for a trophy meant that the accomplishments in that season were vivaciously received.
(3) 1972-73 Division 1 League Title winners, UEFA Cup winners and changing the whole squad
The baron period that preceded this season was not anticipated. After a six-year wait, Liverpool FC became ‘the first English club to win a European trophy, the UEFA Cup, and the League championship in the same season’, in the 1972-73 season. This section will explore what Shankly did to turn this rut into success. Shankly’s hardest task throughout the whole period, was dismantling this team that brought him remarkable success in the early to mid-1960s, and creating a new squad.
From the 1969-70 season to the start of the 1972-73 season, Shankly had sold thirteen players and purchased nine. Of the thirteen he sold, three of them had made over four hundred appearances, four had made over one hundred. Losing this amount of experience, and replacing them with fresh acquisitions, presented Shankly with a tough task. Of Shankly’s nine purchases, five made over one hundred appearances at the close of their Anfield careers. He replaced trustworthy players with new ones, who went on to also display loyalty for the club. One interesting statistic is that, if you take the average appearances and goals of the players he sold, then compare that with those who replaced them, the numbers are very close. He replaced thirteen players who on average made 180 appearances and scored 41 goals between them, with nine players who on average made 170 appearances and went on to score 39 goals. This may seem like a lot of numbers that may be hard to process, the key fact is that Shankly replaced loyalty and quality successfully, creating a whole new squad. To replace one big player can be very difficult, replacing a whole team which had won him many trophies illustrates Shankly’s transfer nous.
Shankly had to sell aged club legends like Hunt (31), St John (31), Lawrence (31) and Yeats (34), as they were reaching the end of their careers. The baron years that came before the 1972-73 season illustrate that Shankly was being too loyal to these players. Nevertheless, they were sold and he replaced them with younger men who went onto be successful, such as; Heighway (22), Toshack (21), Keegan (20) and Case (18). Shankly again had highlighted his transfer targets, his main target was Keegan and Shankly labelled him ‘the inspiration of the new team’. Shankly is afforded a lot of praise for signing Keegan, yet it is important to note that ‘Shankly had not seen Keegan play’, acting solely off advice from his staff. This may detract from some of the praise that Shankly receives for this transfer.
The changes Shankly made were not just in terms of personnel but also his formation was altered. The change from 2-3-5 formations to 4-4-2, marked a new era of ‘ball-playing defenders and a more flexible and generic type of player able to play in several positions’. Shankly had already pioneered formation changes during the 1960s, he was accredited with being the ‘first club team to go into a flat back four in England’, a formation changed inspired by European football.
Much like with his aforementioned squad changes at the start of the Division 2 promotion season, Shankly again re-used players in the squad to build success. Ray Clemence had been purchased in 1967 as a long-term replacement for fellow goalkeeper Lawrence, and was now an integral part of the team. In his squad for the 1972-73 season, Shankly had six players who had worked their way up from the youth team at Liverpool FC. This included his captain Tommy Smith and future captain Phil Thompson. As well as this, Glyn mentions how Shankly converted Callaghan’s position ‘from the wing to the midfield’, to lengthen his career. Shankly used the tools he had in the team already, partnering them with new transfers and young, local players. This is exemplified with Phil Thompson recalling a talk with Shankly when he was 18, Shankly told him “You are going to play for this club for years. You will captain this club one day”, this proved to be correct.
It is again too simplistic to list Shankly’s transfers and state that as the reason Liverpool FC won the double in 1972-73, his tactical mind must also be praised. One such example of this was Shankly’s psychology. A plaque was placed above the tunnel leading to the pitch that read ‘THIS IS ANFIELD’, written in white on a red background, this was used as a ‘form of intimidation’. The Division 1 League Title that was won that year was wrapped up with a game to spare, ‘Liverpool had clinched a record eighth title’.
However, the pivotal moment of the campaign that showcased Shankly at his managerial best was the UEFA Cup victory. The UEFA Cup Final first leg was held at a ‘rain-drenched Anfield’ and the game was postponed, yet this ‘futile 27 minutes of football’ meant that the ‘secrets’ of both teams were out, and Shankly had a little bit of time to alter his tactics before the replay the following day. Shankly’s mind games were used well when the referee said that the game may have to be called off. Shankly insisted the pitch was not “too bad”, he believed that had he agreed with the referee then the Borussia Moenchengladbach bench, or ‘Continentals’ as Shankly labelled them, would have insisted they played on.
Controversially, Shankly had left out Toshack for the first game as he was returning from injury, Toshack was ‘furious’ and confronted Shankly, stating “you must be the luckiest man alive” and stormed out of Anfield. The next day Toshack was reinstated to the starting team. Shankly had spotted that ‘The German defenders weren’t very big and they never came out of their penalty box’, he utilised Toshack’s height and ultimately ‘Keegan scored a couple of goals from these flicks and we won 3-0’. Interestingly, Shankly does not mention this Toshack altercation in his autobiography, whether it occurred or not the decision to put Toshack in the side was a master stroke. Keegan took many headlines for his two goals and missed penalty, yet it was ‘clear that the recall of … Toshack … would pay a handsome dividend’, ‘Borussia could do nothing with Toshack in the air’. Liverpool FC won the first leg 3-0. They went into the second leg with many believing it would ‘surely be enough to make Liverpool the first side to win the First Division and a European trophy in the same season’. The second leg was not a forgone conclusion, yet following a 2-0 defeat ‘Liverpool held on to win their first European trophy after nearly ten years of trying’. What made it more impressive was that they did it with, in Shankly’s words, ‘virtually a team of kids’.
This season was huge for Shankly, he proved he was still a top manager. He won his third Division 1 League Title and had the UEFA Cup to go with it. This added to the ‘golden age’ at Anfield under Bill Shankly and it proved to be in his penultimate season with Liverpool FC. After six long years without a trophy this was a huge achievement for Liverpool FC and ranks amongst the best campaigns Shankly had. Reflecting upon this season Shankly said; ‘winning the League Championship for the third time, and with a brand-new team, possibly gave me more satisfaction than anything’.
Despite not winning a trophy for six years, the Liverpool FC fans were still fully in support for Bill Shankly. In fact, during this six-year slump, Liverpool FC recorded three of the top four average attendances of this whole period. The Liverpool FC fans loved and supported their team, a large part of this was because of their devotion to Shankly himself.
(4) Shankly’s Relationship with the Liverpool FC fans
One of the best ways to understand Shankly’s relationship with the fans is through Davie’s study of analogy and Liverpool FC. Davie states that, when analysing ‘football as if it were a religion’, in Liverpool FC’s case, the environment enables fans to hold ‘valuable and accurate perceptions about charismatic individuals … notably Bill Shankly’. Put more simply, football is viewed as a religious experience by many on Merseyside, Shankly is viewed as a God to hardcore Liverpool FC supporters. Many fans see football as ‘a religion, a way of life’, Shankly understood and tapped into this. Waller supports this by labelling this affection as, ‘Deification by Liverpool fans’, this became troubling for Shankly as he felt a pressure to live up to their estimations. This lead to him saying “I’m no God. People seem to think I'm a miracle-maker”, the fact that Shankly had to say this illustrates the intense relationship he had with the fans. Most Liverpool FC fans at the time believe that deifying Shankly is ‘extreme’, yet could ‘understand why people would view him like that’. This relationship certainly aids the assertion that this was a ‘golden age’ for Liverpool football.
Shankly had such a special relationship with the fans and the love was certainly returned to him. Shankly himself believed this, he said “It is more than fanaticism, it’s a religion. To the many thousands who come here to worship, Anfield isn’t a football ground, it’s a sort of shrine’. This pseudo religious image is best depicted on Shankly’s last competitive game, the FA Cup Final in 1974, where two fans ran on the pitch in celebration and kissed Shankly’s feet. The relationship was so intense that it became a ‘cult’ around Bill Shankly. It is hard to fathom how a Scotsman could arrive in Liverpool and carve such an amazing relationship with the Liverpool FC fans. Shankly was a successful manager, however, compared to Bob Paisley his successor at Anfield, he did not win as many trophies. Paisley was more consistently successful. Yet, Shankly is loved more than any other Liverpool FC manager, it will be interesting to try and decipher what Shankly possessed that made him so loved.
One reason could be that Shankly started the greater success that followed in the two decades after his retirement. It can always feel easier to understand a story if you can mark a beginning, Shankly was the beginning of this future success. Before Shankly, Liverpool FC were a solid team but by no means the best in England. They went on to dominate England and Europe by winning many leagues and European Cups. It was Shankly that orchestrated this transformation. His charisma in momentous occasions and personal relationship with the fans, created an affinity with Liverpool FC. As Toshack said about the bond, ‘He was unique in his relationship with the fans and his love affair with the Kop’.
Shankly was a staunch socialist and he always believed in the power of everyone working together. One of his most famous quotes is:
The socialism I believe in isn't really politics. It is a way of living. It is humanity. I believe the only way to live and to be truly successful is by collective effort, with everyone working for each other, everyone helping each other, and everyone having a share of the rewards at the end of the day. That might be asking a lot, but it's the way I see football and the way I see life
Shankly is so inextricably linked with socialism that writer, Stephen Kelly said; ‘The football of Shankly was the football of socialism, it was the post-war government of Attlee, it was the miners, it was about the dignity of the working man’. Shankly was entwined with politics and was friends with former Prime minister, Harold Wilson. Wilson was interviewed by Shankly on the Bill Shankly Show on Radio City 96.7. The two men discussed politics and football and Shankly said, ‘Our football was a form of socialism’. He needed the fans as much as they needed him and he would do anything to please them.
There are countless examples of Shankly’s relentless attempts to please the Liverpool FC fans. He would spend a lot of time replying to letters from fans and giving them tickets to the games. One example of this comes from Eastley, he notes that one young fan who wrote ‘the word ‘please’ 1,010 times in a begging letter to Bill Shankly and is rewarded with a £1 ground ticket’. Another example is when ‘Bill Shankly wrote an article in the Liverpool Echo, saying that he would help any genuine fans who were having difficulty in obtaining tickets’. According to Paul, one lucky fan received a letter from Shankly with a Cup Final ticket inside, there was ‘a note on headed notepaper saying, ‘Best Wishes B Shankly’. There are countless examples of Shankly sending Cup Final tickets and Birthday Cards to Liverpool FC supporters throughout his life.
It was not only match tickets that Shankly obtained for Liverpool FC fans. Ray Clemence recalled of times when Liverpool FC fans would be on the same train home from away matches as the Liverpool FC team. Several of the fans had not purchased tickets but when the ticket inspector went around the train, Shankly would pay for the tickets of the fans as he knew how important they were to the club.
 He was even seen ‘in West Derby Village carrying shopping for the elderly people’.
 These were all genuine acts of kindness that Shankly did, he was a true believer in socialism and he wanted to help his people as much as he could.
Aside from individual memories, there are several moments of contrasting emotions that illustrate Shankly’s relationship with the Liverpool FC fans. One of the significant moments came shortly after the defeat to Arsenal FC in the 1971 FA Cup Final, a game billed as ‘the best Wembley final for years’. Shankly’s team returned to Liverpool as the defeated side, yet nothing about Shankly presented failure and he managed to turn the moment into power and pride between fans and players. The team returned to Liverpool with ‘At least 100,000 supporters’ to greet them and congratulate their efforts, despite defeat. Shankly stood on the steps of St. George’s Hall in the centre of Liverpool and spoke to his people. He said; “Since I came here to Liverpool, and to Anfield, I have drummed it into our players time and again that they are privileged to play for you. And if they didn't believe me, they believe me now”. The crowd was in total silence listening to their enigmatic leader and when he finished speaking they erupted and began chanting his name. Shankly possessed such power over the fans, they and his team were disappointed with defeat, the players looked almost awkward and embarrassed as he was speaking. Yet, he completely turned the occasion on its head and inspired everyone present. Bill Shankly stood in front of the fans with his arms wide and this image is still famous today, in the picture he does not look like a loser. He was showing that despite losing, the fans were right to be proud of their team.
When looking at the image, it does not look as though it presents a defeated manager who has just marked his fifth season without a trophy. The huge crowds demonstrate the love that the Liverpool FC fans had for their team and manager. His arms are outstretched and he looks like a man who is proud of his club and certainly is not portraying a loser. Even the crowd behind him look bemused, amongst the many adoring faces there are several fans and police officers who seem to be questioning Shankly’s actions somewhat. Shankly is rarely pictured with a beaming smile but his stern face shows that this is a moment he is trying to evoke power and passion. This may have been hard to initially understand for the many who may have thought he was celebrating defeat. He and the thousands of fans who had gathered were proud of their team, Shankly knew this reception was special and he had to utilise the crowd. Through his speech and actions, he made Liverpool FC look like the winners and he strengthened his bond with the Liverpool FC supporters. This is perhaps summed up by what else he said in his speech; “Yesterday at Wembley, we lost the Cup. But you the people have won everything”.
Another moment where Shankly delivered a great speech was after winning the FA Cup in, what proved to be his last season with Liverpool FC, 1974. This was much like the 1971 experience, except on this occasion Shankly had silverware with him whilst he spoke. Liverpool FC had just beaten Newcastle at Wembley and came home to Liverpool to celebrate their second FA Cup triumph under Shankly. The ‘traditional reception’ that awaited the team saw a ‘quarter of a million people’ lining the streets of Liverpool. According to Shankly the reception was ‘better than 1965’, when the first FA Cup was won. On the open top bus, whilst the players were displaying the trophy to the fans, Shankly asked Brian Hall, one of his players, “Hey son, who’s that Chinaman, you know, the one with all the sayings? What’s his name?’, to which Hall replied, “Is it Chairman Mao you mean?”. When the bus arrived at St. George’s Hall again and Shankly delivered another great speech, he exclaimed “Chairman Mao could never have seen such a show of red strength”. This again displayed Shankly’s ability to summarise these moments of mass jubilation and to entertain a crowd with his words. He recalled how three years previous he had spoken to the fans and promised them a return to Wembley, he was proud he lived up to that promise and now he could celebrate a trophy with them. He went on to say “Today I feel prouder than I’ve ever felt before. We played for you, because it’s you we play for. And it’s you who pay our wages”. Again, he was pinning all his success on the Liverpool FC fans, he was thanking them for the role that they played and he wanted them to know how much they meant to him.
It is easy for a manager to tell their fans how much they mean to him and the club. However, with Shankly it felt genuine, his actions on and off the pitch displayed a real love for the people of Liverpool. This continued after his career when he joined the Liverpool FC fans in the Kop for a match in 1975. When he ‘took his place for the first time on the Kop’, he was greeted with ‘the familiar chant of “Shankly is our king”’.
 Shankly was the king of the Liverpool FC fans, not just for winning trophies but for how he handled himself on and off the pitch. He was following his socialist beliefs and this endeared him to the Liverpool FC fans. Shankly said “I’m a people’s man. Only the people matter”, this shows what the fans were to him. This was a ‘golden age’ for Liverpool FC because there has never been a football manager so adored by Liverpool FC fans, or perhaps any fans across the world.
Shankly earned the respect of the Liverpool FC fans, due to performances on the pitch and his actions off them. Despite this, he should still be open for criticism and he certainly was not perfect during his time at Anfield. The aforementioned six-year baron spell and argument with Toshack are just two of many examples of weaknesses of Shankly. Despite the love and admiration that surrounds Shankly there are plenty of examples that expose him to criticism.
(5) Shankly’s ‘Forgotten’ Baron Period 1966-1973 and criticisms of his tenure
Despite Shankly’s period of success and fan admiration, it must be noted the six trophy-less seasons that followed the league title winning campaign of 1965-66. Many Liverpool fans would be surprised ‘he went that long a period without’, this six-year drought appears to have been forgotten. Shankly has always and will always be regarded as a legend at Anfield. Doubting the abilities of Shankly on the red half of Merseyside is almost regarded as blasphemy, such is the stature of Shankly. However, his record is not untarnished and to fully understand whether this was a ‘golden age’ for both Liverpool FC and Shankly, this overlooked period must be examined.
Shankly’s first ever game in charge of Liverpool FC was a 4-0 defeat to Cardiff City. This may seem unrelated to this period, yet the newspaper report of the game provides an interesting quote. ‘Final blow for Bill Shankly was hearing the jeers hurled at the directors' box by the disappointed Anfield fans. Still, Shankly was never afraid of arduous work as a manager. I fear he's going to get plenty of it within the next few months’. The idea of Shankly having a tough time as Liverpool FC manager is never discussed due to the mystique that surrounds his name. Yet, he faced opposition from the fans in his first game, it will be interesting to examine whether it ever returned during his baron years at Liverpool FC.
It was mentioned before about the excellent job that Shankly did in replacing his first title winning team, to create the team of the early 1970s. One man who fell afoul of this was Ian St John, he recalled the day he was first dropped from Shankly’s team. St John says that when he looks back at his relationship with Shankly, ‘Conflicting emotions rise to the surface when I think of him. I’m torn between love and hate’. St John was dropped by Shankly for a game and described it as ‘an ambush that came without a hint of warning’, this was because St John found out by reading the team sheet. It was not only that he had been dropped, it was that he believed Shankly should ‘have shown a little courtesy’, that upset him. St John believed ‘Shankly had let me down’. For a man who was thought of as a great orator and a great people person, this was a bad way to deal with a tender subject. All players must face the realisation that football does not last forever, but Shankly should have dealt with St John with more respect. He was only dropped to the bench, but this was a significant moment that marked the beginning of the end of St John’s Liverpool FC career. He had been at the club for eight years and he deserved to have been pulled aside and told by Shankly face to face, rather than reading a team sheet alone.
Similar to this is the story of Roger Hunt. He, like St John, was part of the 1960s side that won promotion, two Division 1 League Titles and the FA Cup. He felt Shankly did not treat his decline from first team football with respect. The use of substitutions was a very new part of the game, during an FA Cup game in 1969 Shankly made his second ever tactical substitution shortly after the 70th minute. Shankly withdrew Hunt and he was ‘angry, frustrated and puzzled’. Hunt said, “I pulled my shirt off and threw it into the dugout before marching straight inside to have a bath”. This was out of character for Hunt but he believed ‘Shankly had lost faith in me … my confidence had been damaged’. The reaction triggered headlines which resulted in a ‘showdown meeting’ in which Hunt was prepared to either ‘ask to be transferred or quit altogether’. Although fans will note that Hunt ‘was past his best’, Shankly could have handled this period of his career with more empathy.
This illustrates how tumultuous events got with Shankly during this period, he was upsetting the players that he had built into a wonderful team. It appears he was too scared to tell these players that they were on a downward curve of their career, instead he just took actions that upset them. The startling fact of both St John and Hunt is that they appreciated their careers were reaching an end, but they did not think they were treated with enough respect. This seriously dampens his reputation of being the leader of a ‘golden age’, by acting in such a manner. Both St John and Hunt continued to play for Liverpool FC but left the club soon after these events, they still loved their time at the club but both seemed to lose respect for Shankly.
Both stories add to the claim that Toshack made in the 1973 UEFA Cup Final. Toshack’s inclusion in the replay of the final was viewed as a master stroke by Shankly, be that as it may had Shankly been so astute he would have played him from the start and not needed half an hour to change his mind. Toshack said that he and Shankly fell out that night, this seems hard to believe when you read the pages and pages of pro Shankly literature. However, when viewed in conjunction with the stories of St John and Hunt, Toshack’s story seems easier to believe. Shankly would have realised results were not going his way, he needed to make changes to restore success, but by doing so he upset loyal players. He was certainly not immune to mistakes and arguments during his tenure, which may diminish his god like image that is held by some hardcore Liverpool FC supporters.
A lot of praise has been afforded to Shankly for good signings but they did not all work. Tony Hateley joined Liverpool FC as a new striker who was large in stature, as a record signing in 1967. His arrival marked a change of play as he was a man who was good in the air but not as good on the floor. This was an unnecessary change of footballing philosophy and did not work. Upon his arrival ‘the whole play changed’, when he left the team they quickly returned ‘to the ways of actually putting the ball on the floor again and actually playing a bit of football’. He did score 28 goals in his 56 appearances but his style of play did not fit Liverpool FC’s. This is only a small example but illustrates the mistakes that were made in the transfer market.
Interestingly, during the period that Shankly was manager, three of the top four average attendances for a season were during this ‘baron’ period. During this time Liverpool FC finished second and third twice, they reached the FA Cup final and were playing European football for the entirety of the trophy-less run. Performances were so good on the pitch that the question, ‘Will Liverpool Emerge as the team of the Seventies?’, was asked with the belief that Shankly had a talented team at his disposal. This may help to suggest why there was no uproar around Shankly, his teams were achieving relative success on the field. As well as this, his management was praised for providing ‘A Healthy Balance Sheet’, and for his form being ‘wonderfully consistent’. Shankly was getting by with his squad that was in transition, yet he did have a habit of rubbing people up the wrong way and, according to Bowler, had ‘bust-ups with directors at every club he went to’. His passion was often taken abruptly and he would upset people within the club. His petulance is best understood by him being coined by Williams as a ‘serial resigner’, as he was no stranger to having arguments with the club.
Bob Paisley took the manager’s job after Shankly retired, he also worked as Shankly’s assistant for the entirety of his time at Anfield. However, in Paisley’s autobiography, there are only twelve pages dedicated to this. Twelve pages for his first fifteen years as a football coach, this highlights the frictions between the two men. Paisley knew how highly thought of Shankly was at the club and how scrutinised he would be for any criticism of Shankly. Instead of Paisley writing his complaints about Shankly, or issues that they may have had, Paisley just wrote the bare minimum to cover the Shankly era, without lying to the readers and upsetting hardcore Liverpool FC fans. Paisley said, ‘you certainly knew when Bill had had a tiff’, and that their ‘relationship certainly became uneasy’. Paisley goes on to say that ‘Bill was a boss man’ in that ‘If he advised you, you had to take his advice … His word was law’. Shankly was praised for his passion, but he was so determined that he upset his closest allies in achieving success. This is somewhat admirable yet also foolish as he was upsetting peers on their pursuit to the top. Paisley won a lot more than Shankly with virtually the same team. Because of this some fans have even asserted that ‘Paisley must have been the brains behind Shankly’, this argument certainly has a lot of evidence. Regardless of this, it seems clear that Paisley does not have the same opinion of Shankly as many Liverpool FC supporters.
When Shankly retired from Liverpool FC, he ‘was willing to work for the club for nothing more than my pension’ and was keen to still ‘be involved in football’. Yet, he was turned away by the club, as Paisley felt he would want more power and control than was natural for a man who was not manager of the team. The season after he retired Phil Thompson recalls that the players would arrive at training and ‘Shanks was already there, leaning over the veranda. We all said: “Morning boss”’. This was not a healthy relationship to have at a football club, it appeared that Shankly was undermining Paisley and this had happened at other clubs before, old managers hanging around and undermining the new manager, resulting in negative performance on the pitch. Like Sir Matt Busby at Manchester United FC. Paisley ‘knew that other clubs had run into all sorts of trouble from this particular problem’, he ‘didn’t want a situation like that at Liverpool’. This resulted in Shankly being shunned from the team he loved, he felt that it was ‘scandalous and outrageous’, believing he was thought of as an ‘embarrassment to some people’. This is a sombre end to a wonderful career, and when he died seven years after his retirement, Kelly believes he did so of ‘a broken heart’.
Despite this, if Shankly was less controlling, less of a ‘Boss man’, Paisley would have welcomed him into the club at a boardroom level. If this was the case, Shankly would have been a contrasting character and would not have won as many trophies. Nevertheless, it was Shankly’s character and being known by Bowler as a man with ‘a permanent scowl etched’ on his face, that upset some people, this can be attributed to his period of a lack of success, and be a factor that diminishes this era as a ‘golden age’.
Shankly certainly went through a tough period of transition, and this was described by John Williams as a ‘mini black hole’. The fact that a six-year stint without a trophy is only seen as a mini problem illustrates the mystique around Shankly, Williams would have been closer to the truth if he had labelled it an extended period of mediocrity. It was Shankly’s stubbornness that enabled him to remain in a job, he refused to accept Liverpool FC were not the best team in the country. One journalist said that ‘One of the greatest mistakes anyone can make in Soccer is to suggest to Bill Shankly that Liverpool at any time are not doing well’. Liverpool FC were at times substandard and deserved criticism. When Liverpool FC lost to ‘lowly Second Division Watford’ in 1970, Shankly knew he had to change things. He had such love and respect for this first team he had built that he ‘didn’t have enough about him’ to tell them it was the end of their Liverpool FC careers. This illustrates the weakness of Shankly, it was only when he finally realised his old players were substandard that performances improved. However, the way he treated these stalwarts of his two-time Division 1 League Title winning side was too harsh, he lost the respect of some club legends and that certainly would have been something he was keen to avoid. Shankly certainly achieved a lot, but these arguments and managerial mistakes are buried away to keep Shankly’s god like image intact. Shankly’s autobiography was even banned by Liverpool FC in 1976 as he spoke badly of the club. He was so passionate that he upset people, yet he is so violently adored that these bad moments are ignored and overlooked. The baron period and the argumentative moments tarnish Shankly’s image as the man who delivered a ‘golden age’ to Liverpool FC.
Bill Shankly will forever be known and adored by all Liverpool FC fans. He is a man who turned a struggling team into one of the greatest in England, and left them on the brink of further phenomenal success. His title winning teams of 1963-64 and 1972-73, partnered with the FA Cup in 1965 and UEFA Cup in 1973, illustrate his huge managerial ability. The main success he had was building, dismantling and rebuilding a squad good enough to maintain success throughout a fifteen-year period. He is not the most successful Liverpool FC manager yet he is no doubt the most important, as he created the accomplishments of the following decades. His retirement seemed too rash and too early, he expected more from the club and died very soon after giving up work. The reasons for this disappointment was due to his sometimes-abrupt nature that upset the people who helped him achieve his goals. His image at the club is so pristine that negatives do not apply to Shankly with many Liverpool FC supporters, yet these are key to explain why he was treated how he was in his retirement. He could upset people with his passion, but without this will to win there would be no success and no ‘golden age’ to talk about. At the time of his death obituaries came from all around waxing lyrical about his life, yet one rings very important. ‘Few men ever had such a capacity for warming and delighting their fellows without being physically in their company. For many of us he really will always be there’. Shankly created a legacy so intense that he still lives within the club today and he always will, Bill Shankly created Liverpool FC and he created the ‘golden age’ of this period and the years that followed.
‘Mr Success’ and his ‘Cheque-book Champions’
Harry Catterick’s tenure at Everton FC 1961-1973
‘A riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma’: Churchill’s famous description of Russia applies perfectly to Harry Catterick, the Everton manager whose brilliantly-consistent record during the 1960s has been woefully unheralded in the annals of English football
[Colin Harvey, 2005]
Harry Catterick: background and philosophy
Harry Catterick was a very talented manager and his career at Everton FC, 1961-1973, closely mirrored the time span that Bill Shankly spent at Liverpool FC, 1959-1974. Both men achieved a lot during their times on Merseyside, in the fifteen years they spent at the rival clubs they won fifteen trophies between them. Ross and Smailes state, Catterick ‘was the man who transformed Everton FC into a great side’ and ‘he built two Championship winning teams’. Everton FC were a top tier side in England prior to Catterick’s arrival so this quote may over emphasise the rise of the club, yet Catterick’s role was crucial and successful. However, when the great managers of the time are reflected upon the role of Harry Catterick is often forgotten. This has been attributed to Catterick’s quiet nature and management style. When Catterick arrived as Everton FC manager he exclaimed ‘Once an Evertonian, always an Evertonian’; in the words of Sawyer, this appeared to be the beginning of a charismatic relationship with the fans. Adding to his anonymity, it is difficult to come across quotes attributed to Catterick. There are reams of speeches from Shankly, yet finding a Catterick quotation has proven a lot more difficult. Catterick was a soft-spoken man and because of this he attracted less attention than other managers, notably Shankly. Though, in the same way that being likeable and a good public speaker does not make you a good football manager, Catterick being quiet and awkward with the media did not make him bad at his job.
Throughout the 1960s Catterick ‘accrued more top-division points … than [Don] Revie, [Matt] Busby, [Bill] Nicholson, [Bill] Shankly, [Joe] Mercer or anybody else’. Catterick won the Division 1 twice (1962-63, 1969-70), the FA Cup (1966) and the Charity Shield twice (1963, 1970), during this period and he is remembered as a successful manager during his time at Everton FC. As well as this, Catterick is Everton FC’s longest serving manager with his twelve years he spent with the club. His tenure at Everton FC coincided with the money of chairman John Moores and the combination of Catterick and Moores proved successful.
As in the previous chapter, five key factors will be addressed, which bring to life Catterick’s Everton FC career. The key issues are (1) the Division 1 League Title in the 1962-63 season, (2) the FA Cup win in 1966, (3) the signing of Alan Ball (also in 1966) and finally, (4) the second Division 1 League Title in the 1969-70 season. These achievements certainly established Catterick as a managerial great and undoubtedly contributed to making this period a ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool. As well as this, there are several failures of Catterick these will be examined as a further key issue; (5) the criticisms of Harry Catterick.
When discussing Catterick and his tenure at Everton FC it is important to note that, despite his consistency in the 1960s, he did stall at the end of his Everton FC career in the early 1970s. After winning Division 1 in the 1969-70 season Everton FC finished 14th, 15th and then 17th in the following three seasons, before Catterick was encouraged to step down after a bout of bad health. These health issues, poor form and the sale of Alan Ball, all resulted in a string of bad results and disappointing league positions. Catterick was successful in the sixties yet slumped in the early seventies and this period will have to be examined to fully understand the abilities of Catterick.
Through analysing the extended period of success and period of poor results the full picture of Catterick’s tenure can be evaluated. This will help to determine how much Catterick and Everton FC contributed toward the ‘golden age’ of football in Liverpool from the long decade 1959 to 1974.
(1) Division 1 League Title 1962-63
When Everton FC won their sixth Division 1 League Title and first post-war title in the 1962-63 season they were labelled as the ‘cheque-book champions’ by the Daily Telegraph, due to the influx of money from their owner John Moores. Everton FC were the richest team in the country and this vast amount of money may take the shine from their achievements in that season. It is important to analyse the role that Catterick played in gaining the ‘League Championship for the first time since 1939’ at Everton FC.
Catterick was supplied with the financial prowess that enabled them to court the finest players in English football. This led to attempts, according to Cohen, to ‘tap-up’ players with ‘under the counter’ payments to sway their decisions. These accusations from Cohen were not widespread but help exemplify the money that Everton FC had at their disposal. Although not all players were succumbed by this tactic they did manage to acquire numerous players with the help of Moores’ financial backing. In signing Fred Pickering from Blackburn Rovers FC and Johnny Morrisey from Merseyside rivals Liverpool FC along with Denis Stevens and Tony Kay, Catterick bolstered his squad and took them from a fourth-place finish in the 1961-62 season to Champions of England the following year.
Catterick was keen to point out that having money does not make the job of being a football manager any easier. He said; “It’s a fallacy to suggest that because you have thousands to spend things are easier”, comparing his situation to “driving a big car and a little one. You’ve still got to travel the same road”. Catterick must have been aware that having money makes the job of a football manager easier, he did not have to worry as much as the other managers in the league to balance the books and manage player sales and purchases. No matter how much Catterick wanted to avert attention from his side’s financial ability, there is a reason his two title winning sides were labelled ‘Cheque-book Champions’.
Despite this financial backing, it would be unfair to not attribute a considerable amount of praise for Catterick winning the Division 1 League Title in his second season as manager at Everton FC. Much like with Shankly, Catterick did not only purchase talented players but he nurtured the ones he had at the club already. Amongst his title winning squad were Everton FC legends Roy Vernon, Brian Labone, Alex Young and Alex Parker. This combination of new and old was phenomenally successful. It led to Everton FC being unbeaten at Goodison Park all season and ultimately winning the First Division. When Alex Young scored the winning goal against Tottenham the Division 1 League Title was won, a moment remembered by some Everton FC fans as ‘the most iconic football moment in the world’. Catterick admitted that at Everton FC he had the perfect balance of money and home-grown players. He said; “they had the fantastic training facilities and obtained the best results through producing their own players”, yet he also said that “At the same time I could always buy big if necessary”.
The 1962-63 season had the winter known as the ‘Big Freeze’, this ‘provided football with record days for numbers of postponements’, from the 12th of January to the 2nd of February there were ‘only four’ matches played in England. Everton FC did not play any games from late December to mid-February and their form was severely hampered by this break. They did not win in their first four games after the hiatus, yet their title winning form was soon rediscovered. Catterick’s Everton FC were far from cold in their performances for the rest of the season and they ran out winners by six points.
This season was also poignant as it was the first Merseyside Derby ‘after eleven long years’, within ‘24 hours of their being on sale the ground tickets had all been sold’. Liverpool FC had just been promoted from the Second Division and Everton FC were contenders for winning the First Division. Despite this, Everton FC’s Official Match Day Programme was keen to note that ‘form goes by the board in a local “Derby” match, so the fact that Everton are better placed in the League than Liverpool counts for very little’.
The excitement and build up for the game was huge, over 73,000 fans attended the match. The meeting of the Merseyside clubs made front page news in the Liverpool Echo. The headline ‘“Derby” Day is Here’, illustrated the building excitement. Catterick said that ‘there is nothing to equal the atmosphere of the Merseyside match’, this was an opinion shared across Merseyside. The match lived up to its huge billing with a 2-2 draw and a last-minute equaliser from Liverpool FC’s Roger Hunt. The build up to the next Merseyside Derby at Anfield began the next day, local newspaper reports read ‘Even if you live as far away from Merseyside as China, I implore you: See the return game between these two terrible twins of Soccer’.
The return game was at Anfield in April of that season. Liverpool were still the underdogs yet the discussion pre-game was of who was the better team. This ‘argument of two religions’ centred around ‘the tremendous enthusiasm on Merseyside … through thick and thin, a worthy reflection of a hardy community that can look at either wealth or poverty with an equal, unflinching eye’. Of course, there was never going to be a definitive answer as to who was the better team, but this certainly was a period where Liverpool as a city was rising to become a significant city in football, once again. Nevertheless, the build up to this game was as extravagant as the previous meeting. Both teams had ‘waited a long time’ to play each other again, Liverpool FC were keen ‘to prove that as good as Everton are, our own team will bear favourable comparison’. This proved true as the game ended as a goalless draw. The defences ruled the day, it ‘almost seemed as though the only way to make any real breach would have been with a machine gun’. Newly promoted Liverpool FC had held their own against the eventual Champions Everton FC. The fanfare around the games meant that the city was electric, although this game did not live up to the hype which surrounded it, this certainly was a ‘golden age’ for derby games on Merseyside.
It was not only the games between the two Merseyside clubs that brought large crowds to Goodison Park. Throughout the whole era under examination across both Everton FC and Liverpool FC, the 1962-63 season provided the largest average attendances. There were over 51,500 fans attending each game, on average, for Everton FC. This is a phenomenal statistic that so many people were attending football games on Merseyside. Given that at Anfield that season nearly 44,000 fans were attending, this meant that there were close to 100,000 fans watching football on Merseyside each home game. This illustrates that the period under discussion must be considered a ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool. The 1962-63 season had the highest combined average of the whole period under examination, this of course will be linked with Everton FC winning the Division 1 League Title that season and it being Liverpool FC’s first back in the First Division, and that they reached the FA Cup Semi-Final that season. Nevertheless, this is a phenomenal example of the passion for football across Merseyside that season and this period under discussion.
The 1962-63 season established Catterick as a top-quality manager in English football. He won the Division 1 League Title in his second season at Everton FC and he built a team that partnered Moores’ money with home-grown talent and resilience for the harsh winter with a competent winning side. The magnitude of the two Merseyside Derbies in that season illustrate the hunger for football within the city. With Everton FC ending up the eventual winners of the First Division and the huge crowds that watched football in the city that season, it is hard to argue that this is not a season that perfectly exemplifies that this era was a ‘golden age’ for football across Merseyside.
When Everton lifted the Division 1 League Title in 1963 the fans were optimistic that this was to begin a period of success under the stewardship of Catterick. They did not have to wait long for more silverware to come to Goodison Park, through finishing 3rd and 4th in the following two seasons success did not seem far away. In fact, it was only three years after their winning the league in the 1962-63 season that they were winning a trophy once again.
(2) FA Cup victory and World Cup upset in 1966
When Catterick guided Everton FC to the 1962-63 Division 1 League Title, they provided Everton FC fans with an ‘exciting season in which they were unbeaten at home’. Many Evertonians may have assumed that it would ‘not be easy for anyone to depose Everton from the top position’ and that they could go on to dominate domestic football for the following years. However, Everton FC did not win the league again until the 1969-70 season and the only silverware that they picked up in-between that, other than two charity shield wins, was the FA Cup in 1966.
The year 1966 will always be regarded as a momentous year for English football, due to England winning the Football World Cup. Everton FC also had reason to celebrate that season as they won the last game at Wembley before the Football World Cup began, the FA Cup Final. In conjunction with this, they were due to host the semi-final of the World Cup at Goodison Park, which could be featuring England, nevertheless things did not quite occur as they expected.
The FA Cup campaign was a significant event for Everton FC and Catterick and was coined ‘Everton’s Finest Day – A Day Never to be Forgotten’. Their route to Wembley was very successful. They became the first team to make the final ‘without a single goal being scored against them’, and ‘reached the final for the first time in thirty-three years and only the second time in their long history’. Everton FC were drawn against Sheffield Wednesday in the final. The game itself ‘was the type of final that fans dream about but don’t often see, goals in plenty and the most dramatic second half seen for years’.
 Everton FC were two goals down, but ‘three goals in fifteen minutes’ proved enough ‘to keep the cup on Merseyside for the second year running’.
 This dramatic comeback proved the ability of Catterick’s side and secured his first silverware since the Division 1 League Title in the 1962-63 season.
An integral part of the victory and ‘The Everton hero, with two goals, was 21-year-old Mike Trebilcock’.
 The decision to start Trebilcock over star striker Fred Pickering was a huge decision by Catterick. Pickering was returning from injury but he had played in the last three games of the domestic season for Everton FC and so it is fair to assume he would have been fit for the match. Despite this, Catterick put his faith in the young Trebilcock and it was repaid with two goals in the final. Catterick must be afforded a great deal of praise for making this bold decision and for the success that it produced.
Much like when Liverpool FC had won the cup in the previous year, the crowds that met the victorious Everton FC team were tremendous. Liverpool created a strong affinity to success and to the FA Cup. Everton FC had won the FA Cup the year after Liverpool FC had won it for the first time. Much like with the reception the Liverpool FC team were afforded, Everton FC and Catterick were welcomed into the city with huge crowds; ‘no other city can produce crowd scenes like this and for the second year running they’ve turned out to welcome a cup winning team’. The end of the 1965-66 domestic season left Merseyside ‘With the Football League Championship and the F.A. Cup lodged in their city’, this truly was a ‘golden age’ for Liverpool.
The FA Cup Final in 1966 was the last game at Wembley, four weeks before the Football World Cup commenced. It can be argued that there was more interest in the FA Cup Final at the time. Over ten thousand more fans watch Everton FC lift the FA Cup than were there to see England’s first game against Uruguay at the same ground. Nevertheless, the World Cup of 1966 will be forever remembered in English football as England went on to win the trophy. Goodison Park, the home of Everton FC, was one of eight host stadiums for the tournament.
Goodison Park was given the accolade of being the ‘No. 2 ground’ for the World Cup in 1966. Meaning that only Wembley would host more games, and that should England reach the semi-final, Goodison would host the game. This was a huge accolade for Goodison Park and Liverpool. Goodison was the second biggest stadium, only behind Wembley, with an average of 54,000 fans at each game. This was due to its redevelopment where there was ‘an almost complete transformation’ before the tournament.
Be that as it may, the decision was taken by FIFA that the England versus Portugal semi-final should be held at Wembley instead of Goodison Park. This led to outrage across Merseyside with fans complaining that they had been betrayed. Goodison had never officially been awarded England’s semi-final, rather the winner of quarter final one and quarter final three. This turned out to be England against Portugal. Yet, even this was never officially announced. In the World Cup handbook, it said that the hosts of the semi-final games will be announced closer to the match when the teams were decided. The decision was made by FIFA for Wembley to host England’s semi-final as it would attract a bigger crowd than the other game, West Germany versus USSR. This proved true as over fifty thousand more fans spectated the Wembley match than the Goodison tie.
These statistics do not consider the many fans that did not want to attend the game, as they felt let down. Indeed, many of those who had already pre-purchased tickets chose not to attend. 62,000 fans attended the Goodison Park game of Portugal against Brazil in the group stages of the competition, only 43,000 attended the semi-final. This proves to be an unusual statistic, it is fair to assume that ordinarily the semi-final would attract a bigger crowd than a group game, due to the larger magnitude of the match. It should be noted that the group game featured Pelé and Eusébio, two of the best-known footballers of the time which may be a reason to attract such large crowds. Anyhow, Merseysiders felt let down and many voiced their anger by boycotting the semi-final.
Those that did attend protested the decision made by FIFA. There were homemade banners reading “Down With FIFA”, “England Fix Insults Liverpool” and “England Snubs Liverpool”. John Moores commented that he had been led to believe that should England reach the semi-final they would host the game, Hughson denotes that this helped to stoke this fury amongst fans.
What should have been a period of celebration for English and Merseyside football ended rather sourly. This again does not take away from the work of Catterick and Everton FC that year, as well as Liverpool FC for winning the First Division that season. The prospect of a World Cup Semi-Final involving the England team taking place at Goodison Park would have made Merseyside very proud, and particularly Everton FC supporters. However, what could have been a crowning moment for the ‘golden age’ of football in Liverpool during this period, was slightly tarnished. Whether the fault lies with FIFA or the English FA is irrelevant as the disappointment felt across Merseyside was palpable, nationwide.
Despite all this, the combination of Liverpool FC winning the FA Cup in 1965 and the Division 1 League Title in 1966, Everton FC winning the FA Cup in 1966 and Goodison Park being the number two ground for the World Cup, illustrates that this was a ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool. Wembley was the home of the England team yet Liverpool was the home of English football and this was a momentous period for the city. One of the heroes from the England team was on his way to Liverpool to see if he could continue and contribute to this momentously successful period for the city.
(3) The Signing of Alan Ball, 1966
The name of Alan Ball, made up of only eight letters, has become one of the biggest in British football. Indeed, it is a name that has to be considered when talking about the best players in the world.
[Harry Catterick, 1969]
The start of the 1966-67 season was an exciting time for football in England and Liverpool. England had just won the 1966 Football World Cup; Liverpool FC were the Champions of England and Everton FC were the winners of the FA Cup. The traditional curtain raiser to each English Football season is the Charity Shield, were the League winners play the winners of the FA Cup. The game was played at Goodison Park and both teams could display what they had won the previous season, as well as the Jules Rimet trophy which was paraded by the members of the England Football Team, who also represented Liverpool FC and Everton FC. The game has been described by Dohren as a ‘symbolic coronation’ of a ‘footballing oligarchy’, ‘63,000 spectators’ watched this meeting of the two best sides in England, who were both from Merseyside. Defining this match as a coronation of a footballing oligarchy seems rather over the top, especially for a game that is often deemed no more than a pre-season friendly. Nevertheless, this was a very proud day for Liverpool football which showcased the ability of both teams, as well as the friendship and rivalry between them. However, perhaps the best trophy to be displayed was to come a couple of weeks later with the new Everton FC player, Alan Ball.
Ball was also a member of the 1966 World Cup winning England squad and had attracted a lot of attention during the tournament. He was praised for his ‘capacity for work’, ‘hating to hear the final whistle’ and when Everton FC signed him he was already ‘an England veteran’, yet he still had an ‘explosive temperament’. Everton FC already had reason to feel proud with their defender Ray Wilson playing in the final for England, now they had secured the signing of the exciting, young Alan Ball. Ball was ‘just 23 and one of football’s hottest properties with that World Cup success already under his belt’. The transfer ‘broke all records for dealings between British clubs’ and the arrival of Ball marked an exciting period for Everton FC.
Catterick and Ball had a strong relationship during their time working together at Everton FC. Catterick had faced competition in signing Ball but once he and his Dad had met Catterick his decision was made. Ball said, “I was joining a massive club; my wages were more than I had ever imagined”, which again illustrates the financial power of Everton FC and the ability of Ball for him to be paid so highly. Ball’s description of Catterick’s management style provides an extra insight to the type of man he was. He described Catterick as a man who ‘ruled by fear’ and that he ‘never saw him in a track suit’. Ball was not labelling Catterick a ‘tracksuit manager’, this phrase is associated with a manager who has a ‘more professional and scientific approach’ to their job and would prefer to spend their time ‘working with the players’. This argument from Kelly may be too simplistic, nonetheless Ball’s comments would help to support the idea that Catterick was a man who was difficult to approach, particularly if he was not spending time with his players each day on the training field. Ball goes on to mention Catterick’s transition from ‘the smiling man who signed me, Catterick, turned out to be the toughest boss of all’ and labelled him a ‘fearful dictator’. This somewhat contradicts his image of being a quiet man, of course it is possible to be quiet and be feared but not normally an attribute you would associate with fear. Catterick was clearly not a man who was often seen on the training field, he operated from his office. This quiet approach clearly worked for him as he achieved success at Everton FC, yet does help to understand why he was difficult for many to talk to and understand.
It seems hard to avoid comparisons of Catterick to Shankly and this is true with Alan Ball. Ball said about Catterick, “He did not have the same bubbling personality as Shankly but he cared just as much about his club and his team”. Catterick clearly was a passionate man but just conveyed this passion in a very different way to Shankly. As has been mentioned, the ability to instantly recite a quote or watch a video of Shankly means that his name is more closely associated with passion for his club. As for Catterick, his passion was displayed in diverse ways and thus he is perceived to be less passionate but this may not be the case, certainly according to his record signing Alan Ball.
The perfect way to win over Everton FC fans is by scoring against Liverpool FC in the derby. Ball did this on several occasions and in March 1967 he scored on possibly the biggest Merseyside derby ever. Both sides faced each other in the FA Cup and the match was played at Goodison but also broadcasted at Anfield on giant screens. Nowhere ‘in the country would be able to contain everyone who wanted to see the tie ... Liverpool arranged ... eight giant screens at Anfield ... At Goodison, more than a hundred people were hurt in the scramble (for tickets) ... At Liverpool ... police reinforcements were summoned to control the crowds... three hours after the sales had begun, every ticket both for the match and the television relay, had been sold. In all, 105 000 people’. This illustrates the tremendous excitement and anticipation that met each derby game. Ball scored the only goal in an Everton FC victory and endeared himself to the fans. He did this so many times that he grew a reputation as a man who ‘always scored against Liverpool and he loved it’, and the fans loved him scoring those goals.
For many, Ball has been referred to as one of the first modern footballers. Perhaps the best example of this came in the Charity Shield in 1970. This was momentous as ‘Ball was the first person to wear white boots’; the assumption was that to wear coloured boots was rather arrogant, and to do so you must be a good footballer. Nonetheless, in the case of Ball he was deemed good enough to wear them, as Chapman points out, ‘Ball was some player and could get away with whatever colour boots he wanted’. In comparison to the modern age where coloured boots are considered a norm, this act attracted a lot of attention. Ball began a trend amongst footballers of that era and this illustrates the stature that he had within the game. Hummel, the company who made the boots, would have known that someone wearing white boots would attract attention and so they would want a player of stature to wear them and help sell them. This is an early example of celebrity endorsement and marked the beginning of footballers being celebrities and used as marketing tools. Indeed, the boots were named the ‘Alan Ball Soccer Boots’ and the advert was centred around the ‘human fireball himself’, which further illustrates the power of Alan Ball’s image and his stature at the time. Further adverts featured Ball and his new white boots, the boots were said to ‘help you give control of a dropping ball and at the same time turn away from opponents’.
 It appears that Alan Ball’s endorsement of the new white boots was not only benefitting himself and Hummel financially, but also the wearers of the boots who apparently gained some of Ball’s talents through wearing them.
It was not always a forgone conclusion that Ball would be successful at Goodison Park. He arrived with a lot of attention on him, he was a young world cup winner and had a British record transfer fee now attached to his name. He was known for not always having the best temperament and there was a lot of pressure on his shoulders. This meant that his early days at Everton FC were met with scepticism. His first season was described by Goal Magazine as a ‘trial’, in which he would either be rewarded with ‘captaincy of Everton … followed later by the leadership of England’, or he would be branded a man whose talent would ‘take second place to his temperament’.
 Ball went on to play fifty-one games and score eighteen goals in his first season at Everton FC, a successful trial leading to a great Everton FC career. Ball certainly lived up to his price tag and proved a great signing by Catterick.
Ball became an integral part of the Everton FC side and was part of a midfield partnership with Howard Kendall and Colin Harvey. The partnership became known as the ‘Holy Trinity’, Everton FC were light-heartedly coined ‘the only club in the history of football to win the league title with three players’. Of course no team could win a league with three players, but this description illustrates that the three men were hugely significant in this Everton FC side. This partnership helped write Ball into Everton FC folklore and was a big reason as to why Ball had such a good relationship with the fans. In the title winning campaign of 1969-70, Ball went on to captain the team when Brian Labone was injured toward the end of the season. Ball’s ‘single minded determination’, according to Rogers, was a reason for his success. Fans have argued that Ball was a ‘poor captain’, his personality ‘led him to be intolerant of other people’. Ball’s determination was good on a personal level but this did not help him as a leader, which may be a factor for a substandard managerial career, especially when compared to his playing days.
All of Ball’s positive attributes only make it more surprising that after 251 games and 79 goals, he was sold to Arsenal in 1971. Catterick received double what he had paid for Ball in 1966 but the decision came with huge surprise and upset to Everton FC supporters. Ball was a World Cup winner, he had won the league with Everton FC and was one of the best players in English football. As well as displaying his leadership abilities by being captain. Ball will forever be synonymous with Everton FC and Catterick’s tenure but the decision to sell him will still raise questions today. Nevertheless, Ball left behind a great legacy and a great relationship with the Everton FC fans. This is best summarised by him saying “Once Everton has touched you nothing will be the same”. For this period to be considered a ‘golden age’ for football on Merseyside there would need to be some golden footballers to support this argument, Alan Ball certainly falls under this category.
It has already been mentioned that Ball was a major part in, what proved to be, his only major honour whilst at Everton FC. The League Title of 1969-70 was a season where Catterick’s abilities were at their highest point. The side which centred around Ball, will forever be remembered in Everton FC folklore.
(4) Division 1 League Title 1969-70
The signing of Alan Ball brought with it success as Everton FC were crowned Champions of England in the 1969-70 season. They were dominant throughout the campaign and ‘had led the League throughout the season, at one point in October they were a lordly eight points ahead’. Harry Catterick played a vital role in this success and carried on his nickname that was given to him at his former club Sheffield Wednesday FC, ‘Mr Success’.
Such was the longevity of the reigns of Moores and Catterick, the nickname ‘Cheque-book Champions’ that they were given in the 1962-63 season was carried into 1969-70 as Everton FC were crowned the ‘Mersey Millionaires’. This may be a bit harsh on Catterick as it takes away from his achievements. Hodgson was keen to point out the fact that, ‘Seven of the 1970 team joined Everton straight from school’ is often overlooked. He built a side combined with expensive signings and nurtured home-grown talent, guiding them to an impressive Division 1 League Title victory. The signing of Ball has already been extensively examined but he proved vital in this season and Catterick used Ball as his lynchpin in making a phenomenal side. Catterick’s ability that he displayed throughout his career, to spend money wisely and train current players effectively, proved invaluable in the building of this team.
The season began with a tough visit by the reigning champions. Leeds United FC had gone 34 games unbeaten when they arrived at Goodison Park, Everton FC put three past the champions and went on to win 3-2. This proved a catalyst for the rest of the season and the impressive victory provided a vital 2 points toward the title.
Everton FC and Catterick were relentless and by January they were already tipped for not only winning the League but also the FA Cup. Winning two trophies in one season was and remains a rarity, Catterick’s side were playing such attractive and efficient football that they were tipped for success early in the season. Come January Everton FC were ‘already looking likely’ to win the League, ‘with the season just half-way done’ it was believed they could ‘quite easily find the extra sap’ to win the FA Cup too. Although they went out of the FA Cup at the third round, this belief in the ability of Catterick’s side was rightly placed. So much so that it has been said that ‘no team in Britain contained as much individual skill and flair as did Everton’s in season 1969-70’. This statement from Hodgson does seem rather over the top but they were no doubt an impressive outfit. If they had won the double this would have been a more appropriate quote, nevertheless the team that Catterick built was certainly the best side he constructed during his tenure.
Everton FC ended up only losing five games that season and with top goal scorer Joe Royle and great performances from Alan Ball and Alan Whittle, Catterick’s side was very impressive. They attained more points than any Everton FC team before them and the partnership of Moores’ money and Catterick’s tactics proved unbeatable. This side must be considered as one of, if not the, best that Everton FC have produced in their history. It is fair to associate Catterick and this side with the ‘golden age’ of football on Merseyside in this period, as they provided the Everton FC fans with a side to be proud of and a merited Division 1 League Title.
The only criticism that can be attributed with this side is that this was the only major trophy Everton FC won in Catterick’s final seven seasons at Goodison Park. Had they been more consistent they would have and should have won more trophies. Some of this blame must be placed at the feet of Catterick for not utilising this talented team and providing more trophies for the Everton FC fans.
(5) Criticism of Harry Catterick during his time at Everton FC
Many of the stories that praise Catterick all list his faults as a reason as to why he is not more fondly remembered, especially in comparison to Shankly. When Shankly retired it was met by mass upset amongst Liverpool FC supporters, it was discussed that if Catterick did this at Everton FC their fans would ‘possibly not be upset’. Catterick’s quiet nature means that, according to Sawyer, attention at the time was drawn toward ‘Don Revie, Bill Shankly, Bill Nicholson and Sir Matt Busby’, and they are ‘mentioned as being the great managers of the era while Harry doesn’t’. There must be more of a reason behind this other than Catterick being a quiet man.
A neglected story about Catterick relates to his assault by several Everton FC fans. When discussing Shankly’s relationship with the fans the idea that something like this could happen to him seems implausible. Yet, in 1966 Catterick was approached by Everton FC fans after a game where he had dropped Alex Young for the young striker Joe Royle, there was a ‘small group of hooligans’ who attacked Catterick who was only ‘two or three weeks out of hospital’, he suffered ‘a sprained ankle and a bruised shin’. Catterick was attacked for bringing in a man who went on to score over one hundred goals for the club and later managed them. This illustrates that Catterick’s decision may have been justified, yet the opposition he faced is important. It is certain that he did not deserve to be attacked and that these attackers do not represent all Everton FC fans. Nevertheless, for a group of Everton FC supporters to be so irate highlights a key issue of Catterick. He did not build a strong enough relationship with the fans due to the fact he was unapproachable. Shankly was said to have carried shopping for the elderly and play football with local children. Catterick was far removed from his community and this is an extreme repercussion for this.
Another example of fan disapproval to Catterick’s removal of Alex Young from the starting line-up came around this period. During the game one fan came onto the pitch holding a placard that read “Sack Cattrick Keep Young”. This was only one man on the pitch, who managed to spell Catterick wrong which ‘says a lot about the supporter’, but this again displays angst towards Catterick from some Everton FC fans.
 Everton FC fans described him as ‘a cold man, he was hard to like’, he did not create a strong bond with the fans. This no doubt tarnishes his image as a successful manager.
As much as securing the signing of Alan Ball must be considered when praising Catterick, the sale of Ball was equally as significant. The season after winning the league with Catterick’s Everton FC, he was 26 years old and seemingly at the peak of his footballing powers. Everton FC did not need to sell Ball, though when Arsenal FC came in with a record offer of £220,000 Catterick accepted and Ball was to leave Everton FC. This is a decision that has gained criticism from many and dampened Catterick’s legacy. Ball and Catterick have both said it was a good decision business wise to sell a player when his career was nearing a close, and to receive such a hefty sum of money for his services was impressive. As a supporter of a football team it can be hard to view a footballing decision through the eyes of a businessman. Catterick was aiming to do the best for Everton FC by receiving a fee for a player that he felt had reached his potential, believing he would not receive a bid of this ilk ever again. Yet selling one of the best players at your football club to a title rival the year after you have won the league will always raise eyebrows amongst fans.
The sale of Ball was not uncharacteristic for Catterick. The Everton FC team of this period has often been associated with John Moores’ money, however Catterick acquired a lot of money for the club through sales of important players. ‘Players like Jimmy Gabriel, Alex Young, Roy Vernon, Derek Temple – yes and Fred Pickering – were transferred for hefty sums’. All these, combined with the sale of Ball, illustrate that Catterick viewed football through the eyes of a businessman. Not only did Catterick make Everton FC successful but Hodgson points out that he, provided ‘considerable financial profit too, for Mr. Catterick never forgets that his chief concern is to preserve financial stability’. It could be argued that the chairman and owners should preserve financial stability, Catterick should have been more focussed on winning football matches and trophies with the financial stability that Moores’ finances were providing. This does not make him a bad manager, Shankly was too kind to many of his players and that can be attributed as a fault of his. Catterick’s ability to take a step back and view football through the eyes of business would have benefitted Everton FC financially. Anyhow, this could all be attributed to the slump of Everton FC at the end of Catterick’s tenure and the following years at Everton FC. For the owners of the club Catterick’s decisions may have been praised, yet for fans it is easy to understand their distress. Perhaps if Catterick had have been more selfish he could have used the Moores money to dominate English football. He chose the long-term financial security over the short-term success of Everton FC. Of course, Catterick did achieve a lot in his career at Everton FC, but given the financial might that he had compared to many clubs, including Liverpool FC, he should have won more.
Catterick’s record in the 1960s is highly impressive; however, it is important to discuss the 1970s when analysing his Everton FC tenure. At the beginning of the new decade Catterick was labelled ‘a manager for the 70s’, this never came to fruition and Catterick’s legacy is certainly better viewed through his successes of the 1960s. Nevertheless, it is very important to mention the health issues that Catterick encountered during the 1970s. Catterick afforded some of the blame of this slump to winning the Division 1 League Title in the 1969-70 season. Catterick claimed that “As soon as you win the title you are there to be shot at – and – everyone is so much more determined to beat you”. It must be said that the main reason for Everton FC’s 1970s slump was Catterick’s health. In January 1972 Catterick suffered a heart attack ‘while driving home from Sheffield’, he was not fit for the job yet too proud to step away. This is very similar to the years that Shankly struggled, Shankly had to display a lot of strength to turn around his fortunes yet Catterick did not have the strength to do so due to ill health.
Catterick deserves great praise for winning the Division 1 League Title twice and the FA Cup, as well as signing Ball. Having analysed his faults above it illustrates that Catterick was certainly not faultless. Supporters of any football club understand their team better than anyone else, for Catterick to face the varying degrees of opposition he did from the fans is important. He was bold in making changes, the decision of dropping Pickering and selecting Trebilcock won him the FA Cup, the decision to replace Young with Royle won him a sprained ankle. He upset fans with team selection and sales of big players, like Ball. These decisions will certainly tarnish his image as a great manager, they are also reasons as to why he did not win more with the vast resources he had available. Catterick no doubt had many positives yet his criticisms are vital to understand his managerial career at Everton FC.
Catterick was a quiet man who suffered bad health and this is one reason he is overlooked. He was manager of one of the best teams in the country for the 1960s and he achieved relative success and accumulated more points than any other manager for that decade. He ruled Everton FC strongly and singularly, he said; “The decisions that matter are the ones that only I can make”. It was his lack of attention to the media that means he is often overlooked, but he knew ‘full well that the manager of Everton will never need publicity’. He did not want nor need extra attention to do his job. This works well when you are winning, but when results began to turn it is a lot harder to support a man who does not speak up for himself.
He has been described by Sawyer as ‘visionary, introverted, erudite, secretive, demanding, ambitious to the point of ruthlessness, yet sometimes surprisingly kind and thoughtful’. This confused definition is perhaps the best conclusion of Harry Catterick and his role at Everton FC. It is hard to say that he was not one of the greatest managers of the era, his league successes speak for themselves. He made some great transfers and built a squad centred around fresh players and nurtured talents, yet his sale of big players infuriated supporters. Catterick can be praised for accumulating funds for Everton FC, yet with the money that Moores was pouring into the club many of these sales appear unnecessary. Catterick’s 1960s consistency is tarnished by his 1970s slump, but this was largely due to ill health. All in all, Catterick was a great manager who had a distaste for the media and was a quiet man. This means his whole career has, to many, been lost in history. The perfect way to view his career is by viewing it against Shankly. Shankly achieved more, but not a lot more, than Catterick. It was Shankly’s personality that means he will be remembered and his successes added to this. Catterick’s quiet persona takes away from his success. It is through analysing his career, that it becomes clear Catterick’s role in the ‘golden age’ of football in Liverpool during the 1960s was hugely significant. Catterick and Shankly both won two Division 1 League Titles and the FA Cup in the 1960s, this illustrates how similar the two men’s achievements were. He achieved a lot for Everton FC but not quite enough to surpass his Merseyside neighbour from the period 1959 to 1974, and not as much as he should have given his resources. Had the question been focussed on the 1960s Catterick is certainly an equal to Shankly, yet in the 1970s Catterick’s Everton FC faltered and Liverpool FC flourished under Shankly.
The sheer fact his teams are labelled the Cheque-book Champions, tarnishes his legacy and role in building these teams. It is very unfair that his tenure is remembered for the money he had available as he was a very talented manager. Indeed, ‘It would be foolish to claim that the cheque book is an insurance policy for glory’. No amount of money guarantees any football team any success. Catterick achieved his fair share of successes in football management. The trophies he accrued for Everton FC during this period, certainly place him as a significant reason behind the ‘golden age’ of football in Liverpool during this period.
Catterick has been described by many different people in differing ways. For example, George Best said that ‘Catterick struck me as being a grumpy old bugger’, when he was negotiating over a possible transfer to Everton FC. As much as Catterick has not been coined as a passionate man, the description of grumpy is not necessarily one that is shared by many. This may coincide with Ball’s idea of a fearful dictator, but Ball was keen to add that Catterick was very charming during transfer negotiations. Perhaps the best description is provided from Shoot Magazine; ‘Catterick has a disarming manner. He doesn’t make a lot of noise but he gets things done and he only asks to be judged on his results’.
This dissertation has extensively examined the years 1959 to 1974 to assert whether it was a ‘golden age’ for football in Merseyside. This has been proven through the evidence provided in both chapters. To do this, the careers of Bill Shankly and Harry Catterick were comparatively analysed to highlight the role that these men played in this era. The fact that collectively Liverpool FC and Everton FC won fifteen trophies in fifteen years, sums up the significance of the argument poised by this dissertation. This was a ‘golden age’ and the two managers were majorly successful during this period. Shankly is known as the man who laid the groundwork for future Liverpool FC successes, as well as being the only manager with a statue outside Anfield. Catterick is the longest serving manager of Everton FC, as well as being the manager who was won the most games for them and who won the most points in England during the 1960s. This illustrates that these two men were phenomenally successful football managers. Liverpool FC won their first FA Cup and European trophy, Everton FC won their first Division 1 League Title since 1939 and were breaking transfer records by signing hugely influential players. This was certainly a ‘golden age’ for football on Merseyside for both clubs.
To conclude, the five key research questions raised in the introduction must be evaluated. Firstly, was the period from 1959 to 1974 a ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool? The answer is yes. Within this dissertation countless examples have been used to strengthen the assertion that this is true. Such as the fact that, fifteen trophies were won in fifteen years and both teams won four of eight Division 1 League Titles from 1962 to 1970. Perhaps the period from 1962 to 1966 was a more contained period of success for both clubs. By examining the entirety of the tenure of both managers, this provides a more rounded interpretation of the time. This may not be the ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool, but it is certainly a ‘golden age’.
Secondly, what role did Bill Shankly and Harry Catterick play in making this a ‘golden age’? This too has been thoroughly analysed. This period has been examined so that the careers of both men could be analysed. Shankly and Catterick were pivotal to making this a ‘golden age’, the structure of the two chapters was centred around showcasing their role in achievements of this period.
Thirdly, how much did the clubs achieve in this period? All the major trophies from this period were very closely analysed. Some of the minor trophies were not as closely examined, nevertheless the introductions to each chapter assured that all the successes have been recorded.
Fourthly, what praises and criticisms can be attributed to Shankly and Catterick in this period? Acclaim for each manager was easier to examine due to the structure of the argument. Through analysing successes of the period, praising each manager for their role in this has been easy to achieve. Criticisms are often harder to come across, particularly in the case of Shankly. Despite this, there has been a careful effort to dedicate the ending of both chapters to criticisms or weaknesses of the two men. This balance of praise and criticism provides a more rounded argument.
And lastly, are there facts about Shankly and Catterick that can weaken or strengthen their image, that are unbeknown to many supporters of both Liverpool FC and Everton FC? Facts that somewhat tarnish Shankly’s saintly image were hard to source and little-known. As for Catterick, it appears that his statistics that prove he was a tremendously significant manager of this period are the facts that are unbeknown. Through presenting these to interviewees, it has become clear that not all fans are aware of these facts, thus weakening and strengthening the image of the manager under discussion.
Through prolonged and extensive research in this subject it is clear this was a ‘golden age’ for both Liverpool FC and Everton FC. Bill Shankly is one of the best known and loved managers in England and certainly at Liverpool FC, he deserves this admiration and his successes and personality illustrate this. Harry Catterick is a manager who is well known to older Everton FC fans but deserves wider recognition. His trophies and statistics should reward him with football notoriety. However, he is fading toward football anonymity due to his dislike of the media and quiet nature. These two men operated in polar opposite ways at neighbouring clubs, they deserve recognition for delivering a ‘golden age’ for football in Liverpool in the long decade from 1959 to 1974, and this dissertation has proved that.
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Fig. 3. Tickets and accompanying Letter from Bill Shankly to Tom Jones, May 1974. Copy in authors possession.
Fig. 4. Birthday Card from Bill Shankly to Tom Jones, January 1978. Copy in authors possession.
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Fig. 7. ‘Advert: Like the Human Fireball Himself: Explode’, Shoot Magazine (London, August 1970), p.10.
Fig. 8. I. McArthur and D. Kemp, Elegance borne of brutality: An eclectic history of the football boot (London, 1995), p.63.
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 K. Rogers, Born Not Manufactured: Five Decades of Inside Stories from the Heart of Everton Football Club (Liverpool, 2016). K. Rogers, Goodison Glory: The Official History (Derby, 1998).
 K. Gill, The Real Bill Shankly (Liverpool, 2006). D. Glyn, A Legend in His Own Time: Bill Shankly, Manager, Liverpool Football Club, 12th December, 1959 – 12th July, 1974. A Tribute (Liverpool, 1975). J. Keith, The Essential Shankly (London, 2001). S. F. Kelly, Bill Shankly: It's Much More Important Than That: The Biography (London, 2011). P. Thompson, Shankly (Liverpool, 1993).
 G. Davie, ‘Believing without Belonging: A Liverpool Case Study’, Archives de sciences sociales des religions, 81 (1993), pp. 79-89.
 R. Sawyer, Harry Catterick: The Untold Story of a Football Great (London, 2014).
 Collections & Research Centre, at Deepdale, Preston provided numerous secondary sources such as biographies, general Liverpool FC and Everton FC texts. As well as this, primary sources such as autobiographies, newspapers, magazines, programmes and unbroadcasted interviews from a BBC documentary ‘Kicking and Screaming’.
 A. Ball, Alan Ball’s International Soccer Annual (London, 1969). A. Ball, It’s All About a Ball: An Autobiography (London, 1978). A. Ball with J. Mossop, Alan Ball: Playing Extra Time (London, 2007).
 I. St John, The Saint – My Autobiography (London, 2014). P. Thompson with K. Rogers, Thommo: Stand up Pinocchio: From the Kop to the top. My life inside Anfield (Liverpool, 2005). J. Toshack, Gosh It’s Tosh (London, 1976). R. Yeats, Soccer With a Mersey Beat (London, 1966).
 I. Callaghan with J. Keith, Cally on the Ball (Chatham, 2010).
 B. Paisley, Bob Paisley: An Autobiography (London, 1983).
 C. Harvey and J. Keith, Colin Harvey’s Everton Secrets (Liverpool, 2005).
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009).
 Billy Dunning, interview, 13. Sep. 2017. Richard Evans, telephone interview, 10. Sep. 2017. Ed Jones, telephone interview, 08. Sep. 2017. Tom Jones, telephone interview, 06. Sep. 2017. Tony Madden, interview, 12. Sep. 2017. Paul McNulty, telephone interview, 08. Sep. 2017. Terry Waller, telephone interview, 18. Sep. 2017.
 Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, 1962 - 1972). Goal Magazine (London, 1968). KOP Magazine (Liverpool, 1966 - 1968) (Copies in authors possession). Shoot Magazine (London, 1976). TV Times (London, 1971).
 The Daily Express (London, 1969). The Daily Telegraph (London, 1966) Liverpool Daily Post (Liverpool, 1959 - 1965). Liverpool Echo (Liverpool, 1960 - 1975). Mirror Sport (London, 1973). The Observer (London, 1981).
 Everton Football Club Official Programme (Liverpool, 1962 – 1966) (Copies in authors possession). Liverpool Football Club Official Programme (Liverpool, 1957 - 1967) (Copies in authors possession).
 British Universities Film & Video Council, Bill Shankly Show, at http://bufvc.ac.uk/tvandradio/lbc/index.php/segment/0003500044001 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 British MovieTone (London, 1966). British Pathé (London, 1965-1966).
 E. Weber, You’ll Never Talk Alone (Liverpool, 2006), p.27.
 Channel 4, Peace on Shankly’s ‘love affair’ with Liverpool, at https://www.channel4.com/news/david-peace-bill-shankly-red-or-dead-red-riding-video?intcmp=search_results_page_bottom_p1 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 E. Weber, You’ll Never Talk Alone (Liverpool, 2006), p.120.
 ‘A Message from the Chairman’, Liverpool Football Club Official Programme (Liverpool, 30. Apr. 1966), p.2.
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), p.127.
 J. Keith, Billy Liddell: The Legend Who Carried The Kop (London, 2004), p.76.
 S. F. Kelly, The Official Illustrated History 1892-1995: Liverpool (London, 1995), p.54.
 ‘Billy Liddell: Souvenir Edition’, Liverpool Echo (Liverpool, 21. Sep. 1960).
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), p.127.
 J. Keith, The Essential Shankly (London, 2001), p.30.
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), p.129.
 P. Thompson, Shankly (Liverpool, 1993), p.41.
 S. F. Kelly, The Official Illustrated History 1892-1995: Liverpool (London, 1995), p.60.
 ‘Ian St. John of Liverpool: The Scot who became a scouse’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, May 1967).
 ‘Tops With the Kop’, Liverpool Echo (Liverpool, 26. Aug. 1961).
 I. Ponting & S. Hale, Sir Roger: The Life and Times of Roger Hunt, A Liverpool Legend (Liverpool, 1995), p.20.
 J. Keith, The Essential Shankly (London, 2001), p.32.
 ‘You Have to be Keen’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, October 1962).
 ‘The Anfield Giant’, Liverpool Echo (Liverpool, 09. Sep. 1961).
 YouTube, ‘Shankly The documentary’, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_VbUFvU-u4 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 Interview with P. McNulty, 08. Sep. 2017.
 I. Ponting & S. Hale, Sir Roger: The Life and Times of Roger Hunt, A Liverpool Legend (Liverpool, 1995), p.20
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), p.131.
 Interview with P. McNulty, 08. Sep. 2017.
 D. Glyn, A Legend in His Own Time: Bill Shankly, Manager, Liverpool Football Club, 12th December, 1959 – 12th July, 1974. A Tribute (Liverpool, 1975), p.25.
 S. F. Kelly, The Official Illustrated History 1892-1995: Liverpool (London, 1995), p.62.
 Interview with P. McNulty, 08. Sep. 2017.
 Interview with T. Jones, 06. Sep. 2017.
 ‘At Last!’, Liverpool Daily Post (Liverpool, 02. May. 1965).
 I. Callaghan with J. Keith, Cally on the Ball (Chatham, 2010), p.173.
 I. Ponting & S. Hale, Sir Roger: The Life and Times of Roger Hunt, A Liverpool Legend (Liverpool, 1995), p.54.
 British Pathé, The Cup Final – Liverpool Vs. Leeds 1965 (1965), at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u59t5QpcoMk&t=31s accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), p.148.
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), p.149.
 Ibid, p.177.
 S. F. Kelly, The Official Illustrated History 1892-1995: Liverpool (London, 1995), p.72.
 K. Gill, The Real Bill Shankly (Liverpool, 2006), pp. 64-66.
 B. Paisley, Bob Paisley: An Autobiography (London, 1983), p.24.
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), p.174.
 G. Swann, R. Taylor & A. Ward, ‘Talking Football: A Review of Radio Football and Histories in Derby, Liverpool and Oxford’, Oral History, 22 (1994), p.83.
 D. Dohren, Ghost on the Wall: The Authorised Biography of Roy Evans (Edinburgh, 2004), p.47.
 Unaired Broadcast from Kicking and Screaming, BBC Documentary, Series Consultant Rogan Taylor, accessed at the National Football Museum Collections & Research Centre, at Deepdale, Preston. DVD number 261, Ian St John.
 D. Glyn, A Legend in His Own Time: Bill Shankly, Manager, Liverpool Football Club, 12th December, 1959 – 12th July, 1974. A Tribute (Liverpool, 1975), p.76.
 P. Thompson with K. Rogers, Thommo: Stand up Pinocchio: From the Kop to the top. My life inside Anfield (Liverpool, 2005), p.35.
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), pp. 178-179.
 S. F. Kelly, The Official Illustrated History 1892-1995: Liverpool (London, 1995), p.102.
 ‘It’s a Washout’, Liverpool Echo (Liverpool, 10. May. 1973).
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), p.184.
 C. Hughes, John Toshack: FourFourTwo great footballers (London, 2002), p.47.
 ‘Liverpool on Glory Trail’, Mirror Sport (London, 11. May. 1973).
 ‘It’s a Fair Kop’, Mirror Sport (London, 11. May. 1973).
 P. Thompson, Shankly (Liverpool, 1993), p.62.
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), p.186.
 Ibid, p.177.
 G. Davie, ‘Believing without Belonging: A Liverpool Case Study’, Archives de sciences sociales des religions, 81 (1993), p.85.
 Interview with T. Jones, 06. Sep. 2017.
 P. Waller, ‘Shankly, William [Bill] (1913-1981)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004), http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/40246, accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 S. F. Kelly, Bill Shankly: It's Much More Important Than That: The Biography (London, 2011), p.290.
 Interview with T. Madden, 12. Sep. 2017.
 E. Weber, You’ll Never Talk Alone (Liverpool, 2006), p.4.
 See Fig. 2.
 C. Hughes, John Toshack: FourFourTwo great footballers (London, 2002), p.33.
 E. Weber, You’ll Never Talk Alone (Liverpool, 2006), p.21.
 E. Weber, You’ll Never Talk Alone (Liverpool, 2006), p.47.
 British Universities Film & Video Council, Bill Shankly Show, at http://bufvc.ac.uk/tvandradio/lbc/index.php/segment/0003500044001 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 M. Eastley, From Bovril to Champagne: When the FA Cup Really Mattered Part 1 (Milton Keynes, 2010), p.66.
 D. Paul, Anfield Voices (Gloucestershire, 2013), p.109.
 Tickets and accompanying Letter from Bill Shankly to Tom Jones, May 1974. For a copy of this letter see Fig. 3.
Birthday Card from Bill Shankly to Tom Jones, January 1978. For a copy of this card see Fig. 4.
 YouTube, ‘Bill Shankly retirement and death’, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSMpz11qbi8 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 K. Gill, The Real Bill Shankly (Liverpool, 2006), p.125.
 ‘Cup Final Special’, TV Times (London, 8. May. 1971), p.21.
 J. Corbett, ‘Bill Shankly: Life, death and football’, at https://www.theguardian.com/football/2009/oct/18/bill-shankly-liverpool-manager accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 TheSpionKop, Shanks speaks to the people, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uc_XSdOLFSU accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 See Fig. 5.
 K. Gill, The Real Bill Shankly (Liverpool, 2006), p.48.
 S. F. Kelly, The Official Illustrated History 1892-1995: Liverpool (London, 1995), p.109.
 K. Gill, The Real Bill Shankly (Liverpool, 2006), p.84.
 P. Thompson, Shankly (Liverpool, 1993), p.64.
 D. Peace, Red or Dead (London, 2013), p.131.
 Liverpool ECHO TV, Bill Shankly – the Legend, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0-K6VTMeIdw&t=271s accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 ‘It’s Shankly the Kopite!’, Liverpool Echo (Liverpool, 22. Nov. 1975).
 E. Weber, You’ll Never Talk Alone (Liverpool, 2006), p.7.
 Interview with T. Madden, 12. Sep. 2017.
 ‘Cardiff’s Power Stuns Liverpool’, Liverpool Daily Post (Liverpool, 19. Dec. 1959).
 I. St John, The Saint – My Autobiography (London, 2014), pp.183-185.
 I. Ponting & S. Hale, Sir Roger: The Life and Times of Roger Hunt, A Liverpool Legend (Liverpool, 1995), p.84.
 ‘The Roger Hunt and Bill Shankly Showdown, The Daily Express (London, 05. Mar. 1969).
 Interview with R. Evans, 10. Sep. 2017.
 Unaired Broadcast from Kicking and Screaming, BBC Documentary, Series Consultant Rogan Taylor, accessed at the National Football Museum Collections & Research Centre, at Deepdale, Preston. DVD number 212, Alan Hansen and Tommy Smith.
 ‘Liverpool – team of the 70s?’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, June 1972).
 ‘A Healthy Balance Sheet’, KOP Magazine (22. May. 1968), p.4.
 D. Bowler, Danny Blanchflower: A Biography of a Visionary (London, 1997), p.55.
 J. Williams, Red Men: Liverpool Football Club – The Biography (Edinburgh, 2011), p.348.
 B. Paisley, Bob Paisley: An Autobiography (London, 1983), pp. 24-26.
 Interview with P. McNulty, 08. Sep. 2017.
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), pp. 198-199.
 P. Thompson with K. Rogers, Thommo: Stand up Pinocchio: From the Kop to the top. My life inside Anfield (Liverpool, 2005), p.50.
 B. Paisley, Bob Paisley: An Autobiography (London, 1983), p.27.
 B. Shankly, Shankly: My Story The Autobiography: Unique 50th Anniversary Edition (Liverpool, 2009), p.200.
 S. F. Kelly, Bill Shankly: It's Much More Important Than That: The Biography (London, 2011), p.313.
 D. Bowler, Danny Blanchflower: A Biography of a Visionary (London, 1997), p.239.
 ‘Faith and Pride’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, May 1966).
 J. Williams, Red Men: Liverpool Football Club – The Biography (Edinburgh, 2011), p.341.
 Interview with R. Evans, 10. Sep. 2017.
 Liverpool Echo, ‘Bill Shankly autobiography still a hard hitter’, at http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/sport/football/football-news/bill-shankly-autobiography-still-hard-3377055 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 ‘Bill Shankly – Obituary’, The Observer (London, 04. Oct. 1981).
 C. Harvey and J. Keith, Colin Harvey’s Everton Secrets (Liverpool, 2005), p.73.
 I. Ross & G. Smailes, Everton: A Complete Record (Derby, 1993), p.37.
 R. Sawyer, Harry Catterick: The Untold Story of a Football Great (London, 2014), p.62.
 D. Taylor, ‘Everton’s Harry Catterick is the forgotten great of British managers’, at https://www.theguardian.com/football/blog/2014/nov/29/everton-harry-catterick-forgotten-great-manager accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 T. Matthews, Who’s Who of Everton (Edinburgh, 2004), p.293.
 N. Barrett, The Daily Telegraph Football Chronicle (London, 1993), p.112.
 ‘Evertonia: Welcome to our Visitors’, Everton Football Club Official Programme (Liverpool, 11. May. 1963), p.3.
 G. Cohen, My Autobiography (London, 2005), p.168.
 ‘Catterick: Man at the Top for Ten Years’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, April 1971).
 Interview with E. Jones, 08. Sep. 2017.
 ‘An uphill task for Harry Catterick’, Shoot Magazine (London, 24. Apr. 1976).
 L. Scott, End to End Stuff: The Essential Football Book (Suffolk, 2008), p.455.
 ‘Evertonia: Welcome to Liverpool’, Everton Football Club Official Programme (Liverpool, 22. Sep. 1962), p.3.
 ‘Evertonia: “Derby” Games’, Everton Football Club Official Programme (Liverpool, 22. Sep. 1962), p.3.
 ‘“Derby” Day Is Here’, Liverpool Echo (Liverpool, 22. Sep. 1962).
 ‘Merseyside Glory Day’, Liverpool Echo (Liverpool, 23. Sep. 1962).
 ‘Liverpool’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, April 1963).
 ‘Welcome to our Rivals from Across the Park’, Liverpool Football Club Official Programme (Liverpool, 8. Apr. 1963).
 ‘Defence Supreme in Anfield Derby Battle’, Liverpool Echo (Liverpool, 8. Apr. 1963).
 ‘20 Questions answered by Roy Vernon captain of Everton, the Football League champions’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, July 1963).
 ‘We want that title – and the new Busby Babes will help to get it!’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, September 1963).
 ‘Everton’s Finest Day – A Day Never to be Forgotten’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, July 1966).
 British MovieTone, Everton For Wembley (Everton v Manchester United), at http://www.movietone.com/N_POPUP_Player.cfm?action=playVideo&assetno=99089 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 British Pathé, The Cup Final 1966, at https://www.britishpathe.com/video/the-cup-final-6 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 British MovieTone, Contest for the Cup – Colour, at http://www.movietone.com/N_POPUP_Player.cfm?action=playVideo&assetno=99089 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 ‘Double by Trebilcock sparks Everton Cup comeback’, The Daily Telegraph (London, 15. May. 1966).
 British MovieTone, Riotous Return for Everton, at http://www.movietone.com/N_POPUP_Player.cfm?action=playVideo&assetno=99112 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 ‘Pride of Merseyside!’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, July 1966).
 ‘Evertonia: In the “Kitty”’, Everton Football Club Official Programme (Liverpool, 4. Dec. 1965), p.3.
 T. Baker, 1966 World Cup 40th Anniversary Revisited: Memories of England’s Greatest Victory (Dorset, 2006), p.117.
 ‘Evertonia’, Everton Football Club Official Programme (Liverpool, 11. Apr. 1966), p.3.
 J. Hughson, England and the 1966 World Cup: A Cultural History, p.40.
 T. Baker, 1966 World Cup 40th Anniversary Revisited: Memories of England’s Greatest Victory (Dorset, 2006), pp. 109-111.
 Ibid, p.109.
 See Fig. 6.
 J. Hughson, England and the 1966 World Cup: A Cultural History, pp 41-42.
 A. Ball, Alan Ball's International Soccer Annual (London, 1969), p.7.
 D. Dohren, Ghost on the Wall: The Authorised Biography of Roy Evans (Edinburgh, 2004), p.25.
 ‘Star Strip – Alan Ball’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, November 1966).
 K. Rogers, Born Not Manufactured: Five Decades of Inside Stories from the Heart of Everton Football Club (Liverpool, 2016), p.84.
 ‘Transfer Market: Last-minute rush of stars and minnows’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, October 1966).
 A. Ball with J. Mossop, Alan Ball: Playing Extra Time (London, 2007), p.72.
 Ibid, p.74.
 S. Kelly, The Role of the Professional Football Manager (London, 2017), p.24.
 A. Ball with J. Mossop, Alan Ball: Playing Extra Time (London, 2007), p.74.
 A. Ball, It’s All About a Ball: An Autobiography (London, 1978), p.33.
 Brian Barwick and Gerald Sinstadt, The Great Derbies: Everton Versus Liverpool (London, 1988), p.37.
 Interview with B. Dunning, 13. Sep. 2017.
 M. Chapman, Heroes, Hairbands and Hissy Fits: Chappers’ Modern History of Football (London, 2010), p.41.
 See Fig. 7.
 See Fig. 8.
 ‘Alan Ball … Angry Young Man on Trial’, Goal Magazine (London, 24. Aug. 1968), p.13.
 K. Rogers, Born Not Manufactured: Five Decades of Inside Stories from the Heart of Everton Football Club (Liverpool, 2016), p.27.
 Ibid, p.88.
 Interview with E. Jones, 08. Sep. 2017.
 K. Rogers, Born Not Manufactured: Five Decades of Inside Stories from the Heart of Everton Football Club (Liverpool, 2016), p.333.
 D. Hodgson, The Everton Football Book: League Champions 1969/70 (London, 1970), p.9.
 Ibid, p.17.
 J. Jennings, Ever the Optimist (London, 2009), p.57.
 D. Hodgson, The Everton Football Book: League Champions 1969/70 (London, 1970), p.21.
 I. Ross & G. Smailes, Everton: A Complete Record (Derby, 1993), p.156.
 ‘I’m Tipping Everton for ‘The Double’’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, January 1970).
 D. Hodgson, The Everton Football Book: League Champions 1969/70 (London, 1970), p.19.
 S. F. Kelly, Forever Everton: The Official Illustrated History of Everton FC (London, 1987), pp. 108-109.
 Interview with T. Waller, 18. Sep. 2017.
 R. Sawyer, Harry Catterick: The Untold Story of a Football Great (London, 2014), p.13.
 Liverpool Echo, ‘Harry Catterick Story Part 3: The Day The Catt was ‘assaulted’ by fans’, at http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/sport/football/football-news/harry-catterick-story-part-3-3388691 accessed 10 Nov. 17.
 See Fig. 9.
 Interview with T. Waller, 18. Sep. 2017.
 Interview with B. Dunning, 13. Sep. 2017.
 ‘Catterick: Man at the Top for Ten Years’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, April 1971).
 D. Hodgson, The Everton Football Book: League Champions 1969/70 (London, 1970), p.17.
 ‘The Sweet Science of Everton’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, October 1970).
 ‘Watch Derby! Warns Catterick’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, September 1971).
 I. Ross & G. Smailes, Everton: A Complete Record (Derby, 1993), p.244.
 D. Hodgson, The Everton Football Book: League Champions 1969/70 (London, 1970), p.24.
 R. Sawyer, Harry Catterick: The Untold Story of a Football Great (London, 2014), p.27.
 ‘What Did You Win? That’s All that Matters These Days’, Charles Buchan’s Football Monthly (London, July 1963).
 C. Shindler, George Best and 21 Others (London, 2004), p.90.
 ‘An uphill task for Harry Catterick’, Shoot Magazine (London, 24. Apr. 1976).
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